Country equity: Conceptualization and empirical evidence
Despite considerable interest in the topic of country equity, attempts at its measurement have been scarce. This research contributes to the literature by providing a consumer-based measure for country equity, and it improves country equity measurement by addressing some of the limitations associated with previous approaches. This research also contributes to our understanding of this area by providing empirical evidence of the multidimensionality of the country equity construct. We define country equity from a consumer perspective, as the value endowed by a source country onto products originating from that country. We conceptualize country equity based on consumers' memory based associations, using the associative network memory model, as a five-dimensional construct, comprising country awareness, macro country image, micro country image, perceived quality, and country loyalty. The paper reports the results of an empirical study of a sample of shopping mall consumers (NÂ =Â 719) from Australia. The proposed model is tested in two product categories (cars and televisions). Results confirm the hypothesized five-dimensional structure. Our findings extend Aaker's [Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity. New York: The Free Press] and Keller's [Keller, K. L. (1993).Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22] conceptualization of brand equity to country brands, as well as Yoo and Donthu's [Yoo, B. & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1-14] consumer-based brand equity measurement to the measurement of country equity. The results have implications for government agencies, industry groups and firms interested in branding a country in target international markets.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 19 (2010)
Issue (Month): 3 (June)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/133/bibliographic|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Martin S Roth & Jean B Romeo, 1992. "Matching Product Category and Country Image Perceptions: A Framework for Managing Country-of-Origin Effects," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(3), pages 477-497, September.
- C Min Han & Vern Terpstra, 1988. "Country-Of-Origin Effects for Uni-National and Bi-National Products," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(2), pages 235-255, June.
- d'Astous, Alain & Boujbel, Lilia, 2007. "Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 231-239, March.
- Robert A Peterson & Alain J P Jolibert, 1995. "A Meta-Analysis of Country-of-Origin Effects," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 26(4), pages 883-900, December.
- Saeed Samiee, 1994. "Customer Evaluation of Products in a Global Market," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(3), pages 579-604, September.
- Martin, Ingrid M. & Eroglu, Sevgin, 1993. "Measuring a multi-dimensional construct: Country image," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 191-210, November.
- Moon, B. J. & Jain, S. C., 2002. "Consumer processing of foreign advertisements: roles of country-of-origin perceptions, consumer ethnocentrism, and country attitude," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 117-138, April.
- K. Zeugner-Roth & A. Diamantopoulos & M. Angeles Montesinos, 2008. "Country image, country brand equity and consumer's product preferences: an empirical study," Post-Print hal-00787424, HAL.
- Javalgi, Rajshekhar G. & Khare, Virginie Pioche & Gross, Andrew C. & Scherer, Robert F., 2005. "An application of the consumer ethnocentrism model to French consumers," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 325-344, June.
- Knight, Gary A. & Spreng, Richard A. & Yaprak, Attila, 2003. "Cross-national development and validation of an international business measurement scale: the COISCALE," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 581-599, October.
- Jill Gabrielle Klein, 2002. "Us Versus Them, or Us Versus Everyone? Delineating Consumer Aversion to Foreign Goods," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 33(2), pages 345-363, June.
- Quer, Diego & Claver, Enrique & Andreu, Rosario, 2007. "Foreign market entry mode in the hotel industry: The impact of country- and firm-specific factors," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 362-376, June.
- Johny K Johansson & Ilkka A Ronkainen & Michael R Czinkota, 1994. "Negative Country-of-Origin Effects: The Case of the New Russia," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(1), pages 157-176, March.
- Hong, Sung-Tai & Wyer, Robert S, Jr, 1990. " Determinants of Product Evaluation: Effects of the Time Interval between Knowledge of a Product's Country of Origin and Information about Its Specific Attributes," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(3), pages 277-288, December.
- Yoo, Boonghee & Donthu, Naveen, 2001. "Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 1-14, April.
- Ravi Pappu & Pascale G Quester & Ray W Cooksey, 2007. "Country image and consumer-based brand equity: relationships and implications for international marketing," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(5), pages 726-745, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:19:y:2010:i:3:p:276-291. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.