IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/finana/v38y2015icp175-190.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

How performance of risk-based strategies is modified by socially responsible investment universe?

Author

Listed:
  • Bertrand, Philippe
  • Lapointe, Vincent

Abstract

Risk-based allocation strategies, also known as Smart Beta allocations, define the weights of assets in portfolios as functions of the individual and common asset risk. In this paper we focus on the Minimum Variance (MV), Maximum Diversification (MD), Equal Risk Contribution (ERC) and Equal-Weight (EW) risk-based allocation strategies. The popularity of risk-based strategy is commonly justified by their good record of out-performing the cap-weighted (CW) allocation strategy. Because of the low-volatility profile of risk-based allocations this is especially true when crises occur. From March 15, 2002 to May 1, 2012 we investigate how using a socially responsible investment universe impacts performance of risk-based allocation strategies. We use different measures of performance, included risk-adjusted one (multi-factor models), and we propose to disentangle the effect of using a SRI universe from the effect of using risk-based allocations. SRI universe only contains firms that have good environmental, social and governance performance. This kind of filtering is increasingly popular among institutional investors. On the estimation period, using European stocks, we find that the use of the SRI universe has a positive contribution to risk-adjusted performance of risk-based allocations. However this contribution is not uniform among all the risk-based allocation strategies and, can represent only a small part of the total alpha that is observed.

Suggested Citation

  • Bertrand, Philippe & Lapointe, Vincent, 2015. "How performance of risk-based strategies is modified by socially responsible investment universe?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 175-190.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:38:y:2015:i:c:p:175-190
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2014.11.009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105752191400163X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. "The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
    2. El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Kwok, Chuck C.Y. & Mishra, Dev R., 2011. "Does corporate social responsibility affect the cost of capital?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2388-2406, September.
    3. Bebchuk, Lucian A. & Cohen, Alma & Wang, Charles C.Y., 2013. "Learning and the disappearing association between governance and returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 323-348.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4688 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    6. Markus Kitzmueller & Jay Shimshack, 2012. "Economic Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(1), pages 51-84, March.
    7. Nofsinger, John & Varma, Abhishek, 2014. "Socially responsible funds and market crises," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 180-193.
    8. Gunther Capelle-Blancard & Stéphanie Monjon, 2011. "The Performance of Socially Responsible Funds: Does the Screening Process Matter?," Working Papers 2011-12, CEPII research center.
    9. Gunther Capelle†Blancard & Stéphanie Monjon, 2014. "The Performance of Socially Responsible Funds: Does the Screening Process Matter?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 20(3), pages 494-520, June.
    10. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7347 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Michael Schröder, 2007. "Is there a Difference? The Performance Characteristics of SRI Equity Indices," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(1‐2), pages 331-348, January.
    12. Merton, Robert C, 1987. "A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 483-510, July.
    13. Michael Schröder, 2007. "Is there a Difference? The Performance Characteristics of SRI Equity Indices," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(1‐2), pages 331-348, January.
    14. Fama, Eugene F, 1970. "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 383-417, May.
    15. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1986. "Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 223-249, December.
    16. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 2004. "The Capital Asset Pricing Model: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 25-46, Summer.
    17. J.P. Gond & A. El Akremi & J. Igalens & V. Swaen, 2011. "A corporate social responsibility," Post-Print hal-00826426, HAL.
    18. Renneboog, Luc & Ter Horst, Jenke & Zhang, Chendi, 2008. "Socially responsible investments: Institutional aspects, performance, and investor behavior," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1723-1742, September.
    19. Scherer, Bernd, 2011. "A note on the returns from minimum variance investing," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 652-660, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Francesco Cesarone & Andrea Scozzari & Fabio Tardella, 2020. "An optimization–diversification approach to portfolio selection," Journal of Global Optimization, Springer, vol. 76(2), pages 245-265, February.
    2. Boudt, Kris & Raza, Muhammad Wajid & Wauters, Marjan, 2019. "Evaluating the Shariah-compliance of equity portfolios: The weighting method matters," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 406-417.
    3. Chikashi Tsuji, 2016. "Are Dividend Yield and ROE Smart Portfolio Fundamentals? The Recent Case of Japan," Business and Management Horizons, Macrothink Institute, vol. 4(1), pages 10-21, June.
    4. Raza, Muhammad Wajid & Ashraf, Dawood, 2019. "Does the application of smart beta strategies enhance portfolio performance? The case of Islamic equity investments," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 46-61.
    5. Singh, Amanjot, 2020. "COVID-19 and safer investment bets," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 36(C).
    6. Bienert, Sven, . "METASTUDIE :NACHHALTIGKEIT CONTRA RENDITE? Die Implikationen nachhaltigen Wirtschaftens für offene Immobilienfonds am Beispiel der Deka Immobilien Investment GmbH und der WestInvest GmbH," Beiträge zur Immobilienwirtschaft, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics, number 14.
    7. Philippe Bertrand & Vincent Lapointe, 2018. "Risk-based strategies: the social responsibility of investment universes does matter," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 262(2), pages 413-429, March.
    8. Iván Arribas & María Dolores Espinós-Vañó & Fernando García & Paula Beatriz Morales-Bañuelos, 2019. "The Inclusion of Socially Irresponsible Companies in Sustainable Stock Indices," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-1, April.
    9. Fabio Pizzutilo, 2017. "Measuring the under-diversification of socially responsible investments," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(14), pages 1005-1018, August.
    10. Francesco Cesarone & Fabio Tardella, 2017. "Equal Risk Bounding is better than Risk Parity for portfolio selection," Journal of Global Optimization, Springer, vol. 68(2), pages 439-461, June.
    11. Justyna Przychodzen & Fernando Gómez-Bezares & Wojciech Przychodzen & Mikel Larreina, 2016. "ESG Issues among Fund Managers—Factors and Motives," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(10), pages 1-1, October.
    12. Sangki Lee & Insu Kim & Chung-hun Hong, 2019. "Who Values Corporate Social Responsibility in the Korean Stock Market?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(21), pages 1-1, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Socially responsible investment; Alternative and smart beta strategies; Risk-adjusted performance; Robust covariance matrix;

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • C58 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Financial Econometrics
    • C60 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - General
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • M14 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:38:y:2015:i:c:p:175-190. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620166 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.