IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jsusta/v11y2019i7p2047-d220514.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Inclusion of Socially Irresponsible Companies in Sustainable Stock Indices

Author

Listed:
  • Iván Arribas

    () (Department of Economic Analysis, Universitat de València, ERI-CES, IVIE, 46022 Valencia, Spain)

  • María Dolores Espinós-Vañó

    () (Business School, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia, 46022 València, Spain)

  • Fernando García

    () (Business School, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia, 46022 València, Spain)

  • Paula Beatriz Morales-Bañuelos

    () (Department of Business Studies, Universidad Iberoamericana, 01219 Ciudad de México, Mexico)

Abstract

Social rating agencies implement complex filters to identify the companies with the best sustainable and social performance and help investors select the companies for their sustainable portfolios. This study analysed whether companies that are defined as ethical, sustainable and socially responsible by those agencies actually deserve this label. More specifically, the inclusion in the prestigious Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) World of companies that have been involved in controversies according to the Thomson Reuters Eikon database was studied. The results show that the inclusion of irresponsible companies in the DJSI Index is a fact. This outcome is in line with previous studies that criticise the methodologies applied by social rating agencies and those which outline the similarity of sustainable and conventional portfolios. The results may explain the contradictory conclusions regarding the performance of sustainable and conventional mutual funds in numerous studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Iván Arribas & María Dolores Espinós-Vañó & Fernando García & Paula Beatriz Morales-Bañuelos, 2019. "The Inclusion of Socially Irresponsible Companies in Sustainable Stock Indices," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-14, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:7:p:2047-:d:220514
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/7/2047/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/7/2047/
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Emiel Duuren & Auke Plantinga & Bert Scholtens, 2016. "ESG Integration and the Investment Management Process: Fundamental Investing Reinvented," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 138(3), pages 525-533, October.
    2. Miriam Jankalová & Radoslav Jankal, 2017. "The assessment of corporate social responsibility: approaches analysis," Post-Print hal-01861040, HAL.
    3. I. Girerd-Potin & S. Jimenez-Garces & Pascal Louvet, 2014. "Which Dimensions of Social Responsibility Concern Financial Investors?," Post-Print halshs-01333409, HAL.
    4. Christophe Revelli & Jean-Laurent Viviani, 2015. "Financial performance of socially responsible investing (SRI): what have we learned? A meta-analysis," Post-Print halshs-01141295, HAL.
    5. Bertrand, Philippe & Lapointe, Vincent, 2015. "How performance of risk-based strategies is modified by socially responsible investment universe?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 175-190.
    6. Halkos, George & Skouloudis, Antonios, 2016. "Corporate responsibility and national institutions: A quantitative assessment," MPRA Paper 70210, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Maria Teresa Lamata & Vicente Liern & Blanca Pérez-Gladish, 2018. "Doing good by doing well: a MCDM framework for evaluating corporate social responsibility attractiveness," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 267(1), pages 249-266, August.
    8. Amal Aouadi & Sylvain Marsat, 2018. "Do ESG Controversies Matter for Firm Value? Evidence from International Data," Post-Print halshs-02007374, HAL.
    9. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7349 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Fernando Muñoz & Maria Vargas & Isabel Marco, 2014. "Environmental Mutual Funds: Financial Performance and Managerial Abilities," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 124(4), pages 551-569, November.
    11. Pieter Jan Trinks & Bert Scholtens, 2017. "The Opportunity Cost of Negative Screening in Socially Responsible Investing," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 140(2), pages 193-208, January.
    12. Amal Aouadi & Sylvain Marsat, 2018. "Do ESG Controversies Matter for Firm Value? Evidence from International Data," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 151(4), pages 1027-1047, September.
    13. Jacquelyn E. Humphrey & Geoffrey J. Warren & Junyan Boon, 2016. "What is Different about Socially Responsible Funds? A Holdings-Based Analysis," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 138(2), pages 263-277, October.
    14. Mehmet Balcilar & Riza Demirer & Rangan Gupta, 2017. "Do Sustainable Stocks Offer Diversification Benefits for Conventional Portfolios? An Empirical Analysis of Risk Spillovers and Dynamic Correlations," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(10), pages 1-18, October.
    15. Reddy, Krishna & Mirza, Nawazish & Naqvi, Bushra & Fu, Mingli, 2017. "Comparative risk adjusted performance of Islamic, socially responsible and conventional funds: Evidence from United Kingdom," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 233-243.
    16. Gunther Capelle-Blancard & S. Monjon, 2012. "Trends in the literature on socially responsible investment: Looking for the keys under the lamppost," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00733402, HAL.
    17. Miriam Jankalová & Radoslav Jankal, 2017. "The assessment of corporate social responsibility: approaches analysis," Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, VsI Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, vol. 4(4), pages 441-459, June.
    18. Renneboog, Luc & Ter Horst, Jenke & Zhang, Chendi, 2008. "Socially responsible investments: Institutional aspects, performance, and investor behavior," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1723-1742, September.
    19. Isabelle Girerd-Potin & Sonia Jimenez-Garcès & Pascal Louvet, 2014. "Which Dimensions of Social Responsibility Concern Financial Investors?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 121(4), pages 559-576, June.
    20. Sirkku Hellsten & Chris Mallin, 2006. "Are ‘Ethical’ or ‘Socially Responsible’ Investments Socially Responsible?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 66(4), pages 393-406, July.
    21. I. Girerd-Potin & S. Jimenez-Garces & P. Louvet, 2014. "Which Dimensions of Social Responsibility Concern Financial Investors?," Post-Print halshs-01026389, HAL.
    22. Maria J. Charlo & Ismael Moya & Ana M. Muñoz, 2017. "Sustainable Development in Spanish Listed Companies: A Strategic Approach," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 24(3), pages 222-234, May.
    23. Yuchao Xiao & Robert Faff & Philip Gharghori & Byoung-Kyu Min, 2017. "The Financial Performance of Socially Responsible Investments: Insights from the Intertemporal CAPM," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 146(2), pages 353-364, December.
    24. I. Girerd-Potin & S. Jimenez-Garces & Pascal Louvet, 2014. "Which Dimensions of Social Responsibility Concern Financial Investors?," Post-Print halshs-01337706, HAL.
    25. Monica-Violeta Achim & Sorin-Nicolae Borlea & Codruţa Mare, 2016. "Corporate Governance and Business Performance: Evidence for the Romanian Economy," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 458-474, June.
    26. Gbenga Ibikunle & Tom Steffen, 2017. "European Green Mutual Fund Performance: A Comparative Analysis with their Conventional and Black Peers," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 145(2), pages 337-355, October.
    27. Maria J. Charlo & Ismael Moya & Ana M. Muñoz, 2015. "Sustainable Development and Corporate Financial Performance: A Study Based on the FTSE4Good IBEX Index," Business Strategy and the Environment, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(4), pages 277-288, May.
    28. Yunieta Nainggolan & Janice How & Peter Verhoeven, 2016. "Ethical Screening and Financial Performance: The Case of Islamic Equity Funds," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 83-99, August.
    29. Lesser, Kathrin & Rößle, Felix & Walkshäusl, Christian, 2016. "Socially responsible, green, and faith-based investment strategies: Screening activity matters!," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 16(C), pages 171-178.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Xiao-Guang Yue & Yan Han & Deimante Teresiene & Justina Merkyte & Wei Liu, 2020. "Sustainable Funds’ Performance Evaluation," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(19), pages 1-1, September.
    2. Mustafa K. Yilmaz & Mine Aksoy & Ekrem Tatoglu, 2020. "Does the Stock Market Value Inclusion in a Sustainability Index? Evidence from Borsa Istanbul," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-1, January.
    3. Jinhwan Kim & Hyeob Kim & HyukJun Kwon, 2019. "Corporate Social Responsibility Activity Combinations for Sustainability: A Fuzzy Set Analysis of Korean Firms," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(24), pages 1-1, December.
    4. Sandra Escamilla-Solano & Antonio Fernández-Portillo & Jessica Paule-Vianez & Paola Plaza-Casado, 2019. "Effect of the Disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility on Business Profitability. A Dimensional Analysis in the Spanish Stock Market," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(23), pages 1-1, November.
    5. Fernando García & Jairo González-Bueno & Francisco Guijarro & Javier Oliver, 2020. "Forecasting the Environmental, Social, and Governance Rating of Firms by Using Corporate Financial Performance Variables: A Rough Set Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(8), pages 1-1, April.
    6. Muhammad Ikram & Qingyu Zhang & Robert Sroufe & Marcos Ferasso, 2020. "The Social Dimensions of Corporate Sustainability: An Integrative Framework Including COVID-19 Insights," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(20), pages 1-1, October.
    7. Fernando Gómez-Bezares & Wojciech Przychodzen & Justyna Przychodzen, 2019. "Corporate Sustainability and CEO–Employee Pay Gap—Buster or Booster?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(21), pages 1-15, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sangki Lee & Insu Kim & Chung-hun Hong, 2019. "Who Values Corporate Social Responsibility in the Korean Stock Market?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(21), pages 1-14, October.
    2. Luluk Widyawati, 2020. "A systematic literature review of socially responsible investment and environmental social governance metrics," Business Strategy and the Environment, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(2), pages 619-637, February.
    3. Patricia Crifo & Elena Escrig-Olmedo & Nicolas Mottis, 2019. "Corporate Governance as a Key Driver of Corporate Sustainability in France: The Role of Board Members and Investor Relations," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 159(4), pages 1127-1146, November.
    4. Dan Daugaard, 2020. "Emerging new themes in environmental, social and governance investing: a systematic literature review," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 60(2), pages 1501-1530, June.
    5. Gregor Dorfleitner & Christian Kreuzer & Christian Sparrer, 2020. "ESG controversies and controversial ESG: about silent saints and small sinners," Journal of Asset Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(5), pages 393-412, September.
    6. Łukasz Dopierała & Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda & Daria Ilczuk, 2020. "Does the Asset Allocation Policy Affect the Performance of Climate-Themed Funds? Empirical Evidence from the Scandinavian Mutual Funds Market," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-1, January.
    7. Xing Chen & Bert Scholtens, 2018. "The urge to act: A comparison of active and passive socially responsible investment funds in the United States," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 25(6), pages 1154-1173, November.
    8. Pablo Durán-Santomil & Luis Otero-González & Renato Heitor Correia-Domingues & Juan Carlos Reboredo, 2019. "Does Sustainability Score Impact Mutual Fund Performance?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(10), pages 1-17, May.
    9. Qinghua Wang & Yaning Zhou & Li Luo & Junping Ji, 2019. "Research on the Factors Affecting the Risk Premium of China’s Green Bond Issuance," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(22), pages 1-14, November.
    10. Léopold Djoutsa Wamba & Jean‐Michel Sahut & Eric Braune & Frédéric Teulon, 2020. "Does the optimization of a company's environmental performance reduce its systematic risk? New evidence from European listed companies," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 27(4), pages 1677-1694, July.
    11. Fernando García & Jairo González-Bueno & Javier Oliver & Nicola Riley, 2019. "Selecting Socially Responsible Portfolios: A Fuzzy Multicriteria Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(9), pages 1-14, April.
    12. Arouri, Mohamed & Pijourlet, Guillaume & Williams, Benjamin, 2020. "Unpleasant arithmetic of socially responsible investment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 193(C).
    13. Hongkang Xu & Jia Wu & Mai Dao, 2020. "Corporate social responsibility and trade credit," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 54(4), pages 1389-1416, May.
    14. Sheikh, Shahbaz, 2019. "Corporate social responsibility and firm leverage: The impact of market competition," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 496-510.
    15. Estapé-Dubreuil, Glòria & Ashta, Arvind & Hédou, Jean-Pierre, 2016. "Micro-equity for sustainable development: Selection, monitoring and exit strategies of micro-angels," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 117-129.
    16. Clementino, Ester & Perkins, Richard, 2020. "How do companies respond to environmental, social and governance (ESG) ratings? Evidence from Italy," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 103046, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    17. Benlemlih, Mohammed, 2017. "Corporate social responsibility and firm financing decisions: A literature review," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 42, pages 1-10.
    18. repec:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:2:p:676-:d:479041 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Junjie Wu & George Lodorfos & Aftab Dean & Georgios Gioulmpaxiotis, 2017. "The Market Performance of Socially Responsible Investment during Periods of the Economic Cycle – Illustrated Using the Case of FTSE," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 38(2), pages 238-251, March.
    20. Mansi Jain & Gagan Deep Sharma & Mrinalini Srivastava, 2019. "Can Sustainable Investment Yield Better Financial Returns: A Comparative Study of ESG Indices and MSCI Indices," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(1), pages 1-18, February.
    21. Mohammed Benlemlih & Mohammad Bitar, 2018. "Corporate Social Responsibility and Investment Efficiency," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 148(3), pages 647-671, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    socially responsible investment; social rating agencies; sustainability index; corporate ethics; screening methodology;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:7:p:2047-:d:220514. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.