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Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy


  • Kotowicz, Janusz
  • Bartela, Łukasz
  • Węcel, Daniel
  • Dubiel, Klaudia


The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined.

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  • Kotowicz, Janusz & Bartela, Łukasz & Węcel, Daniel & Dubiel, Klaudia, 2017. "Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 156-171.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:118:y:2017:i:c:p:156-171
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    Cited by:

    1. Frank, Elimar & Gorre, Jachin & Ruoss, Fabian & Friedl, Markus J., 2018. "Calculation and analysis of efficiencies and annual performances of Power-to-Gas systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 218(C), pages 217-231.
    2. Sakr, I.M. & Abdelsalam, Ali M. & El-Askary, W.A., 2017. "Effect of electrodes separator-type on hydrogen production using solar energy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 140(P1), pages 625-632.
    3. Karamanev, Dimitre & Pupkevich, Victor & Penev, Kalin & Glibin, Vassili & Gohil, Jay & Vajihinejad, Vahid, 2017. "Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 237-245.
    4. Kotowicz, Janusz & Węcel, Daniel & Jurczyk, Michał, 2018. "Analysis of component operation in power-to-gas-to-power installations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 216(C), pages 45-59.
    5. Khosravi, A. & Syri, Sanna & Assad, M.E.H. & Malekan, M., 2019. "Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a hybrid ocean thermal energy conversion/photovoltaic system with hydrogen-based energy storage system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 304-319.
    6. Robinius, Martin & Raje, Tanmay & Nykamp, Stefan & Rott, Tobias & Müller, Martin & Grube, Thomas & Katzenbach, Burkhard & Küppers, Stefan & Stolten, Detlef, 2018. "Power-to-Gas: Electrolyzers as an alternative to network expansion – An example from a distribution system operator," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 182-197.
    7. Wang, Feng & Li, Rongfeng & Ding, Cuiping & Tang, Wukui & Wang, Yibo & Xu, Shimeng & Yu, Ronghai & Wang, Zhongmin, 2017. "Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of ZrCo alloy decorated with flower-like Pd particles," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 8-17.
    8. Bartela, Łukasz & Kotowicz, Janusz & Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia, 2018. "Investment risk for biomass integrated gasification combined heat and power unit with an internal combustion engine and a Stirling engine," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 601-616.
    9. González Rodríguez, Daniel & Brayner de Oliveira Lira, Carlos Alberto & García Parra, Lázaro Roger & García Hernández, Carlos Rafael & de la Torre Valdés, Raciel, 2018. "Computational model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting system coupled to a VHTR for nuclear hydrogen production," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 1165-1176.
    10. Peydayesh, Mohammad & Mohammadi, Toraj & Bakhtiari, Omid, 2017. "Effective hydrogen purification from methane via polyimide Matrimid® 5218- Deca-dodecasil 3R type zeolite mixed matrix membrane," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 2100-2107.
    11. Rimkus, Alfredas & Matijošius, Jonas & Bogdevičius, Marijonas & Bereczky, Ákos & Török, Ádám, 2018. "An investigation of the efficiency of using O2 and H2 (hydrooxile gas -HHO) gas additives in a ci engine operating on diesel fuel and biodiesel," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 640-651.
    12. Khosravi, A. & Koury, R.N.N. & Machado, L. & Pabon, J.J.G., 2018. "Energy, exergy and economic analysis of a hybrid renewable energy with hydrogen storage system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 1087-1102.


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