IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy


  • Kotowicz, Janusz
  • Bartela, Łukasz
  • Węcel, Daniel
  • Dubiel, Klaudia


The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined.

Suggested Citation

  • Kotowicz, Janusz & Bartela, Łukasz & Węcel, Daniel & Dubiel, Klaudia, 2017. "Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 156-171.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:118:y:2017:i:c:p:156-171
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gassner, M. & Maréchal, F., 2008. "Thermo-economic optimisation of the integration of electrolysis in synthetic natural gas production from wood," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 189-198.
    2. Huber, Matthias & Dimkova, Desislava & Hamacher, Thomas, 2014. "Integration of wind and solar power in Europe: Assessment of flexibility requirements," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 236-246.
    3. Guandalini, Giulio & Campanari, Stefano & Romano, Matteo C., 2015. "Power-to-gas plants and gas turbines for improved wind energy dispatchability: Energy and economic assessment," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 117-130.
    4. Shafiullah, G.M. & M.T. Oo, Amanullah & Shawkat Ali, A.B.M. & Wolfs, Peter, 2013. "Potential challenges of integrating large-scale wind energy into the power grid–A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 306-321.
    5. Martínez, I. & Romano, M.C., 2016. "Flexible sorption enhanced gasification (SEG) of biomass for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) and liquid biofuels: Process assessment of stand-alone and power-to-gas plant schemes for SNG," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 615-630.
    6. Shivashankar, S. & Mekhilef, Saad & Mokhlis, Hazlie & Karimi, M., 2016. "Mitigating methods of power fluctuation of photovoltaic (PV) sources – A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1170-1184.
    7. Bertsch, Joachim & Growitsch, Christian & Lorenczik, Stefan & Nagl, Stephan, 2016. "Flexibility in Europe's power sector — An additional requirement or an automatic complement?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 118-131.
    8. Kondziella, Hendrik & Bruckner, Thomas, 2016. "Flexibility requirements of renewable energy based electricity systems – a review of research results and methodologies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 10-22.
    9. Atsonios, K. & Violidakis, I. & Sfetsioris, K. & Rakopoulos, D.C. & Grammelis, P. & Kakaras, E., 2016. "Pre-dried lignite technology implementation in partial load/low demand cases for flexibility enhancement," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 427-436.
    10. Hong, Lixuan & Lund, Henrik & Möller, Bernd, 2012. "The importance of flexible power plant operation for Jiangsu's wind integration," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 499-507.
    11. Olateju, Babatunde & Monds, Joshua & Kumar, Amit, 2014. "Large scale hydrogen production from wind energy for the upgrading of bitumen from oil sands," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 48-56.
    12. Singh, Sonal & Jain, Shikha & PS, Venkateswaran & Tiwari, Avanish K. & Nouni, Mansa R. & Pandey, Jitendra K. & Goel, Sanket, 2015. "Hydrogen: A sustainable fuel for future of the transport sector," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 623-633.
    13. Taamallah, S. & Vogiatzaki, K. & Alzahrani, F.M. & Mokheimer, E.M.A. & Habib, M.A. & Ghoniem, A.F., 2015. "Fuel flexibility, stability and emissions in premixed hydrogen-rich gas turbine combustion: Technology, fundamentals, and numerical simulations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 1020-1047.
    14. Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd & van den Broek, Machteld & Seebregts, Ad & Faaij, André, 2015. "Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 107-128.
    15. Mansilla, Christine & Sigurvinsson, Jon & Bontemps, André & Maréchal, Alain & Werkoff, François, 2007. "Heat management for hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 423-430.
    16. Rahmani, Mohsen & Jaramillo, Paulina & Hug, Gabriela, 2016. "Implications of environmental regulation and coal plant retirements in systems with large scale penetration of wind power," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 196-210.
    17. Auer, Hans & Haas, Reinhard, 2016. "On integrating large shares of variable renewables into the electricity system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 115(P3), pages 1592-1601.
    18. Barelli, L. & Desideri, U. & Ottaviano, A., 2015. "Challenges in load balance due to renewable energy sources penetration: The possible role of energy storage technologies relative to the Italian case," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 93(P1), pages 393-405.
    19. Manditereza, Patrick Tendayi & Bansal, Ramesh, 2016. "Renewable distributed generation: The hidden challenges – A review from the protection perspective," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1457-1465.
    20. Gawlik, Lidia & Szurlej, Adam & Wyrwa, Artur, 2015. "The impact of the long-term EU target for renewables on the structure of electricity production in Poland," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(P2), pages 172-178.
    21. Kato, Takeyoshi & Kubota, Mitsuhiro & Kobayashi, Noriyuki & Suzuoki, Yasuo, 2005. "Effective utilization of by-product oxygen from electrolysis hydrogen production," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 30(14), pages 2580-2595.
    22. Haas, Reinhard & Resch, Gustav & Panzer, Christian & Busch, Sebastian & Ragwitz, Mario & Held, Anne, 2011. "Efficiency and effectiveness of promotion systems for electricity generation from renewable energy sources – Lessons from EU countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 2186-2193.
    23. Luo, Xing & Wang, Jihong & Dooner, Mark & Clarke, Jonathan, 2015. "Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 511-536.
    24. Bouman, Evert A. & Øberg, Martha M. & Hertwich, Edgar G., 2016. "Environmental impacts of balancing offshore wind power with compressed air energy storage (CAES)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 91-98.
    25. Papaefthymiou, G. & Dragoon, Ken, 2016. "Towards 100% renewable energy systems: Uncapping power system flexibility," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 69-82.
    26. Stempien, Jan Pawel & Sun, Qiang & Chan, Siew Hwa, 2013. "Performance of power generation extension system based on solid-oxide electrolyzer cells under various design conditions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 647-657.
    27. Paska, Józef & Surma, Tomasz, 2014. "Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Poland," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 286-294.
    28. Steffen, Bjarne & Weber, Christoph, 2013. "Efficient storage capacity in power systems with thermal and renewable generation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 556-567.
    29. Spiecker, Stephan & Weber, Christoph, 2014. "The future of the European electricity system and the impact of fluctuating renewable energy – A scenario analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 185-197.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Frank, Elimar & Gorre, Jachin & Ruoss, Fabian & Friedl, Markus J., 2018. "Calculation and analysis of efficiencies and annual performances of Power-to-Gas systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 218(C), pages 217-231.
    2. Sakr, I.M. & Abdelsalam, Ali M. & El-Askary, W.A., 2017. "Effect of electrodes separator-type on hydrogen production using solar energy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 140(P1), pages 625-632.
    3. Karamanev, Dimitre & Pupkevich, Victor & Penev, Kalin & Glibin, Vassili & Gohil, Jay & Vajihinejad, Vahid, 2017. "Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 237-245.
    4. Kotowicz, Janusz & Węcel, Daniel & Jurczyk, Michał, 2018. "Analysis of component operation in power-to-gas-to-power installations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 216(C), pages 45-59.
    5. Khosravi, A. & Syri, Sanna & Assad, M.E.H. & Malekan, M., 2019. "Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a hybrid ocean thermal energy conversion/photovoltaic system with hydrogen-based energy storage system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 304-319.
    6. Bartela, Łukasz, 2020. "A hybrid energy storage system using compressed air and hydrogen as the energy carrier," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 196(C).
    7. Robinius, Martin & Raje, Tanmay & Nykamp, Stefan & Rott, Tobias & Müller, Martin & Grube, Thomas & Katzenbach, Burkhard & Küppers, Stefan & Stolten, Detlef, 2018. "Power-to-Gas: Electrolyzers as an alternative to network expansion – An example from a distribution system operator," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 182-197.
    8. Wang, Feng & Li, Rongfeng & Ding, Cuiping & Tang, Wukui & Wang, Yibo & Xu, Shimeng & Yu, Ronghai & Wang, Zhongmin, 2017. "Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of ZrCo alloy decorated with flower-like Pd particles," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 8-17.
    9. Bartela, Łukasz & Kotowicz, Janusz & Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia, 2018. "Investment risk for biomass integrated gasification combined heat and power unit with an internal combustion engine and a Stirling engine," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 601-616.
    10. González Rodríguez, Daniel & Brayner de Oliveira Lira, Carlos Alberto & García Parra, Lázaro Roger & García Hernández, Carlos Rafael & de la Torre Valdés, Raciel, 2018. "Computational model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting system coupled to a VHTR for nuclear hydrogen production," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 1165-1176.
    11. Peydayesh, Mohammad & Mohammadi, Toraj & Bakhtiari, Omid, 2017. "Effective hydrogen purification from methane via polyimide Matrimid® 5218- Deca-dodecasil 3R type zeolite mixed matrix membrane," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 2100-2107.
    12. Rimkus, Alfredas & Matijošius, Jonas & Bogdevičius, Marijonas & Bereczky, Ákos & Török, Ádám, 2018. "An investigation of the efficiency of using O2 and H2 (hydrooxile gas -HHO) gas additives in a ci engine operating on diesel fuel and biodiesel," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 640-651.
    13. Khosravi, A. & Koury, R.N.N. & Machado, L. & Pabon, J.J.G., 2018. "Energy, exergy and economic analysis of a hybrid renewable energy with hydrogen storage system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 1087-1102.
    14. Daniel Węcel & Michał Jurczyk & Wojciech Uchman & Anna Skorek-Osikowska, 2020. "Investigation on System for Renewable Electricity Storage in Small Scale Integrating Photovoltaics, Batteries, and Hydrogen Generator," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(22), pages 1-19, November.
    15. Yuzer, B. & Selcuk, H. & Chehade, G. & Demir, M.E. & Dincer, I., 2020. "Evaluation of hydrogen production via electrolysis with ion exchange membranes," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C).
    16. Uchman, Wojciech & Skorek-Osikowska, Anna & Jurczyk, Michał & Węcel, Daniel, 2020. "The analysis of dynamic operation of power-to-SNG system with hydrogen generator powered with renewable energy, hydrogen storage and methanation unit," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 213(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bartela, Łukasz, 2020. "A hybrid energy storage system using compressed air and hydrogen as the energy carrier," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 196(C).
    2. Andrychowicz, Mateusz & Olek, Blazej & Przybylski, Jakub, 2017. "Review of the methods for evaluation of renewable energy sources penetration and ramping used in the Scenario Outlook and Adequacy Forecast 2015. Case study for Poland," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 703-714.
    3. Cruz, Marco R.M. & Fitiwi, Desta Z. & Santos, Sérgio F. & Catalão, João P.S., 2018. "A comprehensive survey of flexibility options for supporting the low-carbon energy future," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 338-353.
    4. Blanco, Herib & Faaij, André, 2018. "A review at the role of storage in energy systems with a focus on Power to Gas and long-term storage," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1049-1086.
    5. Uchman, Wojciech & Skorek-Osikowska, Anna & Jurczyk, Michał & Węcel, Daniel, 2020. "The analysis of dynamic operation of power-to-SNG system with hydrogen generator powered with renewable energy, hydrogen storage and methanation unit," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 213(C).
    6. Oree, Vishwamitra & Sayed Hassen, Sayed Z., 2016. "A composite metric for assessing flexibility available in conventional generators of power systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 683-691.
    7. Abdilahi, Abdirahman M. & Mustafa, Mohd Wazir & Abujarad, Saleh Y. & Mustapha, Mamunu, 2018. "Harnessing flexibility potential of flexible carbon capture power plants for future low carbon power systems: Review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 3101-3110.
    8. Vanegas Cantarero, María Mercedes, 2018. "Reviewing the Nicaraguan transition to a renewable energy system: Why is “business-as-usual” no longer an option?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 580-592.
    9. Rúa, Jairo & Nord, Lars O., 2020. "Optimal control of flexible natural gas combined cycles with stress monitoring: Linear vs nonlinear model predictive control," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 265(C).
    10. Devlin, Joseph & Li, Kang & Higgins, Paraic & Foley, Aoife, 2017. "Gas generation and wind power: A review of unlikely allies in the United Kingdom and Ireland," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 757-768.
    11. Sinn, Hans-Werner, 2017. "Buffering volatility: A study on the limits of Germany's energy revolution," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 130-150.
    12. Stinner, Sebastian & Huchtemann, Kristian & Müller, Dirk, 2016. "Quantifying the operational flexibility of building energy systems with thermal energy storages," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 140-154.
    13. Kristiansen, Martin & Korpås, Magnus & Svendsen, Harald G., 2018. "A generic framework for power system flexibility analysis using cooperative game theory," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 212(C), pages 223-232.
    14. Dahlke, Steven & Sterling, John & Meehan, Colin, 2019. "Policy and market drivers for advancing clean energy," OSF Preprints hsbry, Center for Open Science.
    15. Kopiske, Jakob & Spieker, Sebastian & Tsatsaronis, George, 2017. "Value of power plant flexibility in power systems with high shares of variable renewables: A scenario outlook for Germany 2035," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 823-833.
    16. Zerrahn, Alexander & Schill, Wolf-Peter, 2017. "Long-run power storage requirements for high shares of renewables: review and a new model," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 1518-1534.
    17. Gorre, Jachin & Ruoss, Fabian & Karjunen, Hannu & Schaffert, Johannes & Tynjälä, Tero, 2020. "Cost benefits of optimizing hydrogen storage and methanation capacities for Power-to-Gas plants in dynamic operation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 257(C).
    18. Saleh Abujarad & Mohd Wazir Mustafa & Jasrul Jamani Jamian & Abdirahman M. Abdilahi & Jeroen D. M. De Kooning & Jan Desmet & Lieven Vandevelde, 2020. "An Adjusted Weight Metric to Quantify Flexibility Available in Conventional Generators for Low Carbon Power Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(21), pages 1-19, October.
    19. Chang-Gi Min & Mun-Kyeom Kim, 2017. "Net Load Carrying Capability of Generating Units in Power Systems," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(8), pages 1-13, August.
    20. Cebulla, F. & Fichter, T., 2017. "Merit order or unit-commitment: How does thermal power plant modeling affect storage demand in energy system models?," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 117-132.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:118:y:2017:i:c:p:156-171. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nithya Sathishkumar). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.