IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v88y2016icp317-328.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The effects of fiscal policy on CO2 emissions: Evidence from the U.S.A

Author

Listed:
  • Halkos, George E.
  • Paizanos, Epameinondas Α.

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of fiscal policy on CO2 emissions using Vector Autoregressions on U.S. quarterly data from 1973 to 2013. In particular, we analyze the short- and mid-term interactions between fiscal policy and emissions by using sign restrictions to identify the policy shocks. We construct the impulse responses to linear combinations of fiscal shocks, corresponding to the scenarios of deficit-financed spending and deficit-financed tax-cuts. To consider possible variations of the effect of fiscal policy according to the sources of pollution, we distinguish between production- and consumption- generated CO2 emissions. The results point out that the implementation of expansionary fiscal spending provides an alleviating effect on emissions from both sources of the pollutant, whereas deficit-financed tax-cuts are associated with an increase on consumption-generated CO2 emissions. The exact pattern of the effects depends on the source of emissions, the scenario of fiscal policy that is implemented and the functional class of government expenditure being increased.

Suggested Citation

  • Halkos, George E. & Paizanos, Epameinondas Α., 2016. "The effects of fiscal policy on CO2 emissions: Evidence from the U.S.A," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 317-328.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:88:y:2016:i:c:p:317-328
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.10.035
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421515301634
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Uhlig, Harald, 2005. "What are the effects of monetary policy on output? Results from an agnostic identification procedure," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 381-419, March.
    2. Andrew Mountford & Harald Uhlig, 2009. "What are the effects of fiscal policy shocks?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(6), pages 960-992.
    3. López, Ramón & Galinato, Gregmar I. & Islam, Asif, 2011. "Fiscal spending and the environment: Theory and empirics," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 180-198, September.
    4. Halkos, George E., 2003. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for sulfur: evidence using GMM estimation and random coefficient panel data models," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(4), pages 581-601, October.
    5. Christina D. Romer & David H. Romer, 2009. "Do Tax Cuts Starve the Beast? The Effect of Tax Changes on Government Spending," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 40(1 (Spring), pages 139-214.
    6. McAusland, Carol, 2008. "Trade, politics, and the environment: Tailpipe vs. smokestack," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 52-71, January.
    7. Ramón López & Amparo Palacios, 2014. "Why has Europe Become Environmentally Cleaner? Decomposing the Roles of Fiscal, Trade and Environmental Policies," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 58(1), pages 91-108, May.
    8. Lopez, Ramon E. & Palacios, Amparo, 2010. "Have Government Spending and Energy Tax Policies Contributed to make Europe Environmentally Cleaner?," Working Papers 94795, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    9. Islam, Asif M. & López, Ramón E., 2015. "Government Spending and Air Pollution in the US," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 8(2), pages 139-189, July.
    10. Sobrino, Natalia & Monzon, Andres, 2014. "The impact of the economic crisis and policy actions on GHG emissions from road transport in Spain," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 486-498.
    11. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    12. Rosenow, Jan & Platt, Reg & Demurtas, Andrea, 2014. "Fiscal impacts of energy efficiency programmes—The example of solid wall insulation investment in the UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 610-620.
    13. Hang, Leiming & Tu, Meizeng, 2007. "The impacts of energy prices on energy intensity: Evidence from China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 2978-2988, May.
    14. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    15. Ruhul A. Salim & Shuddhasattwa Rafiq & A. F. M. Kamrul Hassan, 2008. "Causality And Dynamics Of Energy Consumption And Output: Evidence From Non-Oecd Asian Countries," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 1-26, December.
    16. Fullerton, Don & Kim, Seung-Rae, 2008. "Environmental investment and policy with distortionary taxes, and endogenous growth," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 141-154, September.
    17. Thomas Bernauer & Vally Koubi, 2013. "Are bigger governments better providers of public goods? Evidence from air pollution," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 156(3), pages 593-609, September.
    18. Uhlig, Harald, 1994. "What Macroeconomists Should Know about Unit Roots: A Bayesian Perspective," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(3-4), pages 645-671, August.
    19. Mahadevan, Renuka & Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2007. "Energy consumption, economic growth and prices: A reassessment using panel VECM for developed and developing countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 2481-2490, April.
    20. Sims, Christopher A & Uhlig, Harald, 1991. "Understanding Unit Rooters: A Helicopter Tour," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1591-1599, November.
    21. Halkos, George E. & Paizanos, Epameinondas Α., 2013. "The effect of government expenditure on the environment:An empirical investigation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 48-56.
    22. Perron, Pierre & Rodriguez, Gabriel, 2003. "GLS detrending, efficient unit root tests and structural change," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 1-27, July.
    23. Olivier Blanchard & Roberto Perotti, 2002. "An Empirical Characterization of the Dynamic Effects of Changes in Government Spending and Taxes on Output," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(4), pages 1329-1368.
    24. Lutkepohl, Helmut & Reimers, Hans-Eggert, 1992. "Granger-causality in cointegrated VAR processes The case of the term structure," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 263-268, November.
    25. Calbick, K.S. & Gunton, Thomas, 2014. "Differences among OECD countries’ GHG emissions: Causes and policy implications," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 895-902.
    26. Yuxiang, Karl & Chen, Zhongchang, 2010. "Government expenditure and energy intensity in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 691-694, February.
    27. Lopez, Ramon & Galinato, Gregmar I., 2007. "Should governments stop subsidies to private goods? Evidence from rural Latin America," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(5-6), pages 1071-1094, June.
    28. Cole, Matthew A. & Elliott, Robert J. R., 2003. "Determining the trade-environment composition effect: the role of capital, labor and environmental regulations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 363-383, November.
    29. Sims, Christopher A & Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1990. "Inference in Linear Time Series Models with Some Unit Roots," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 113-144, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Adewuyi, Adeolu O., 2016. "Effects of public and private expenditures on environmental pollution: A dynamic heterogeneous panel data analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 489-506.
    2. Halkos, George & Managi, Shunsuke, 2017. "Land use, forest preservation and biodiversity in Asia," MPRA Paper 82883, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Haouas, Ilham & Hoang, Thi Hong Van, 2019. "Economic growth and environmental degradation in Vietnam: Is the environmental Kuznets curve a complete picture?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 197-218.
    4. Halkos, George, 2017. "Global Energy and Sustainable Development: Introduction," MPRA Paper 81967, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Halkos, George & Bampatsou, Christina, 2016. "Investigating the effect of efficiency and technical changes on productivity," MPRA Paper 76287, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Halkos, George & Papageorgiou, George & Halkos, Emmanuel & Papageorgiou, John, 2018. "Environmental regulation and economic cycles," MPRA Paper 90681, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fiscal policy; Government expenditure functions; CO2 emissions;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:88:y:2016:i:c:p:317-328. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.