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Effects of Macroeconomic Policy on Air Quality: Evidence from the US

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  • Halkos, George
  • Paizanos, Epameinondas

Abstract

This paper examines the effect of economic policy on air quality using US quarterly data from 1973 to 2013. In particular, we analyze the short-run as well as the long-run interactions between fiscal and monetary policy with CO2 emissions, employing time series techniques of co-integration, Granger multivariate causality and vector error-correction modeling. To take into account possible variations of the effect of economic policy according to the sources of pollution, we distinguish between industrial and residential inflicted CO2 emissions. In addition, we construct the impulse responses to three linear combinations of fiscal shocks, corresponding to the three scenarios of deficit-spending, deficit-financed tax cuts and a balanced budget spending expansion. Policy implications from the results vary depending on the source of CO2 emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Halkos, George & Paizanos, Epameinondas, 2015. "Effects of Macroeconomic Policy on Air Quality: Evidence from the US," MPRA Paper 62001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:62001
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/62001/1/MPRA_paper_62001.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. López, Ramón & Galinato, Gregmar I. & Islam, Asif, 2011. "Fiscal spending and the environment: Theory and empirics," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 180-198, September.
    2. McAusland, Carol, 2008. "Trade, politics, and the environment: Tailpipe vs. smokestack," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 52-71, January.
    3. Philip A. Lawn, 2003. "Environmental Macroeconomics: Extending the IS–LM Model to Include an ‘Environmental Equilibrium’ Curve," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 118-134, March.
    4. Galinato, Gregmar I. & Islam, Asif, 2017. "The challenge of addressing consumption pollutants with fiscal policy," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(5), pages 624-647, October.
    5. Andrew Mountford & Harald Uhlig, 2009. "What are the effects of fiscal policy shocks?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(6), pages 960-992.
    6. Corbae,Dean & Durlauf,Steven N. & Hansen,Bruce E. (ed.), 2006. "Econometric Theory and Practice," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521807234, December.
    7. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    8. Islam, Asif M. & López, Ramón E., 2015. "Government Spending and Air Pollution in the US," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 8(2), pages 139-189, July.
    9. Halkos, George E. & Paizanos, Epameinondas Α., 2013. "The effect of government expenditure on the environment:An empirical investigation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 48-56.
    10. Fullerton, Don & Kim, Seung-Rae, 2008. "Environmental investment and policy with distortionary taxes, and endogenous growth," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 141-154, September.
    11. Halkos, George E., 2003. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for sulfur: evidence using GMM estimation and random coefficient panel data models," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(4), pages 581-601, October.
    12. Ramón López & Amparo Palacios, 2014. "Why has Europe Become Environmentally Cleaner? Decomposing the Roles of Fiscal, Trade and Environmental Policies," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 58(1), pages 91-108, May.
    13. Lopez, Ramon E. & Palacios, Amparo, 2010. "Have Government Spending and Energy Tax Policies Contributed to make Europe Environmentally Cleaner?," Working Papers 94795, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    14. Sim, Nicholas C.S., 2006. "Environmental Keynesian macroeconomics: Some further discussion," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(4), pages 401-405, October.
    15. Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Bengochea-Morancho, Aurelia, 2004. "Pooled mean group estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve for CO2," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 121-126, January.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fiscal policy; monetary policy; environment.;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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