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Exploring the effect of economic growth and government expenditure on the environment

Author

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  • Halkos, George
  • Paizanos, Epameinondas

Abstract

This paper examines the effect of economic growth and government spending on the environment using a panel of 71 countries for the time period 1970-2008. In particular, we test the hypothesis of the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic performance and pollution, as well as the hypothesis of a negative direct relationship between fiscal spending and pollution. To take into account that environmental degradation may respond to changes in income and government spending with a time lag, due to technological and institutional reasons, we apply appropriate dynamic econometric methods. We report the estimates for both the short-run and long-run effects on two different air pollutants, namely SO2 and CO2, distinguishing the results for different levels of economic development. Policy implications range depending on the level of income of the considered countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Halkos, George & Paizanos, Epameinondas, 2014. "Exploring the effect of economic growth and government expenditure on the environment," MPRA Paper 56084, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:56084
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. López, Ramón & Galinato, Gregmar I. & Islam, Asif, 2011. "Fiscal spending and the environment: Theory and empirics," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 180-198, September.
    2. Folster, Stefan & Henrekson, Magnus, 2001. "Growth effects of government expenditure and taxation in rich countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(8), pages 1501-1520, August.
    3. Galinato, Gregmar I. & Islam, Asif, 2017. "The challenge of addressing consumption pollutants with fiscal policy," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(05), pages 624-647, October.
    4. Roger Perman & David I. Stern, 1999. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Implications of Non-Stationarity," Working Papers in Ecological Economics 9901, Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program.
    5. Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(03), pages 597-625, June.
    6. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
    7. Cole, Matthew A., 2007. "Corruption, income and the environment: An empirical analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 637-647, May.
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    9. Krauth Brian, 2016. "Bounding a Linear Causal Effect Using Relative Correlation Restrictions," Journal of Econometric Methods, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 117-141, January.
    10. Halkos, George E. & Paizanos, Epameinondas Α., 2013. "The effect of government expenditure on the environment:An empirical investigation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 48-56.
    11. Leitão, Alexandra, 2010. "Corruption and the environmental Kuznets Curve: Empirical evidence for sulfur," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 2191-2201, September.
    12. repec:ags:stataj:119268 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Halkos, George E., 2003. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for sulfur: evidence using GMM estimation and random coefficient panel data models," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(04), pages 581-601, October.
    14. Lopez, Ramon E. & Palacios, Amparo, 2010. "Have Government Spending and Energy Tax Policies Contributed to make Europe Environmentally Cleaner?," Working Papers 94795, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Government expenditure; economic growth; environment; dynamics.;

    JEL classification:

    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
    • H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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