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Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence


  • Fertel, Camille
  • Bahn, Olivier
  • Vaillancourt, Kathleen
  • Waaub, Jean-Philippe


This paper presents an analysis of Canadian energy and climate policies in terms of the coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. After briefly describing the institutional, energy, and climate contexts, we perform a SWOT analysis on the themes of energy security, energy efficiency, and technology and innovation. Within this analytical framework, we discuss the coherence of federal and provincial policies and of energy and climate policies. Our analysis shows that there is a lack of consistency in the Canadian energy and climate strategies beyond the application of market principles. Furthermore, in certain sectors, the Canadian approach amounts to an amalgam of decisions made at a provincial level without cooperation with other provinces or with the federal government. One way to improve policy coherence would be to increase the cooperation between the different jurisdictions by using a combination of policy tools and by relying on existing intergovernmental agencies.

Suggested Citation

  • Fertel, Camille & Bahn, Olivier & Vaillancourt, Kathleen & Waaub, Jean-Philippe, 2013. "Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1139-1150.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:63:y:2013:i:c:p:1139-1150 DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.09.057

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Unruh, Gregory C., 2000. "Understanding carbon lock-in," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 817-830, October.
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    9. Tavana, Madjid & Pirdashti, Mohsen & Kennedy, Dennis T. & Belaud, Jean-Pierre & Behzadian, Majid, 2012. "A hybrid Delphi-SWOT paradigm for oil and gas pipeline strategic planning in Caspian Sea basin," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 345-360.
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    Cited by:

    1. Njoh, Ambe J., 2017. "The SWOT model's utility in evaluating energy technology: Illustrative application of a modified version to assess the sawdust cookstove's sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 313-323.
    2. repec:eee:rensus:v:78:y:2017:i:c:p:1397-1409 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. He, Zheng-Xia & Xu, Shi-Chun & Shen, Wen-Xing & Zhang, Hui & Long, Ru-Yin & Yang, He & Chen, Hong, 2016. "Review of factors affecting China’s offshore wind power industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1372-1386.
    4. repec:eco:journ2:2017-04-16 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Martínez-Jaramillo, Juan Esteban & Arango-Aramburo, Santiago & Álvarez-Uribe, Karla C. & Jaramillo-Álvarez, Patricia, 2017. "Assessing the impacts of transport policies through energy system simulation: The case of the Medellin Metropolitan Area, Colombia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 101-108.
    6. Nejat, Payam & Jomehzadeh, Fatemeh & Taheri, Mohammad Mahdi & Gohari, Mohammad & Abd. Majid, Muhd Zaimi, 2015. "A global review of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and policy in the residential sector (with an overview of the top ten CO2 emitting countries)," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 843-862.


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