IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/rensus/v43y2015icp843-862.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A global review of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and policy in the residential sector (with an overview of the top ten CO2 emitting countries)

Author

Listed:
  • Nejat, Payam
  • Jomehzadeh, Fatemeh
  • Taheri, Mohammad Mahdi
  • Gohari, Mohammad
  • Abd. Majid, Muhd Zaimi

Abstract

Climate change and global warming as the main human societies’ threats are fundamentally associated with energy consumption and GHG emissions. The residential sector, representing 27% and 17% of global energy consumption and CO2 emissions, respectively, has a considerable role to mitigate global climate change. Ten countries, including China, the US, India, Russia, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Canada, Iran, and the UK, account for two-thirds of global CO2 emissions. Thus, these countries’ residential energy consumption and GHG emissions have direct, significant effects on the world environment. The aim of this paper is to review the status and current trends of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and energy policies in the residential sector, both globally and in those ten countries. It was found that global residential energy consumption grew by 14% from 2000 to 2011. Most of this increase has occurred in developing countries, where population, urbanization and economic growth have been the main driving factors. Among the ten studied countries, all of the developed ones have shown a promising trend of reduction in CO2 emissions, apart from the US and Japan, which showed a 4% rise. Globally, the residential energy market is dominated by traditional biomass (40% of the total) followed by electricity (21%) and natural gas (20%), but the total proportion of fossil fuels has decreased over the past decade. Energy policy plays a significant role in controlling energy consumption. Different energy policies, such as building energy codes, incentives, energy labels have been employed by countries. Those policies can be successful if they are enhanced by making them mandatory, targeting net-zero energy building, and increasing public awareness about new technologies. However, developing countries, such as China, India and Iran, still encounter with considerable growth in GHG emissions and energy consumption, which are mostly related to the absence of strong, efficient policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Nejat, Payam & Jomehzadeh, Fatemeh & Taheri, Mohammad Mahdi & Gohari, Mohammad & Abd. Majid, Muhd Zaimi, 2015. "A global review of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and policy in the residential sector (with an overview of the top ten CO2 emitting countries)," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 843-862.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:43:y:2015:i:c:p:843-862
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.066
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114010053
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.rser.2014.11.066?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Chaturvedi, Vaibhav & Eom, Jiyong & Clarke, Leon E. & Shukla, Priyadarshi R., 2014. "Long term building energy demand for India: Disaggregating end use energy services in an integrated assessment modeling framework," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 226-242.
    2. Wang, Zhaohua & Lu, Milin & Wang, Jian-Cai, 2014. "Direct rebound effect on urban residential electricity use: An empirical study in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 124-132.
    3. Golubchikov, Oleg & Deda, Paola, 2012. "Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 733-741.
    4. Pilkington, Brian & Roach, Richard & Perkins, James, 2011. "Relative benefits of technology and occupant behaviour in moving towards a more energy efficient, sustainable housing paradigm," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4962-4970, September.
    5. Kamran Azadi, A. & Yarmohammad, Mohammad H., 2011. "Analysis of Iran's crude oil export future capacity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3316-3326, June.
    6. Chang, Yuan & Ries, Robert J. & Wang, Yaowu, 2013. "Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 656-664.
    7. Mostafaeipour, Ali & Jadidi, Mohsen & Mohammadi, Kasra & Sedaghat, Ahmad, 2014. "An analysis of wind energy potential and economic evaluation in Zahedan, Iran," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 641-650.
    8. Zhang, Tao & Siebers, Peer-Olaf & Aickelin, Uwe, 2012. "A three-dimensional model of residential energy consumer archetypes for local energy policy design in the UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 102-110.
    9. Zuo, Jian & Zhao, Zhen-Yu, 2014. "Green building research–current status and future agenda: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 271-281.
    10. Suganthi, L. & Samuel, Anand A., 2012. "Energy models for demand forecasting—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 1223-1240.
    11. Mills, Bradford & Schleich, Joachim, 2012. "Residential energy-efficient technology adoption, energy conservation, knowledge, and attitudes: An analysis of European countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 616-628.
    12. Kelly, Scott & Crawford-Brown, Doug & Pollitt, Michael G., 2012. "Building performance evaluation and certification in the UK: Is SAP fit for purpose?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(9), pages 6861-6878.
    13. Xu, Peng & Huang, Yu Joe & Miller, Norman & Schlegel, Nicole & Shen, Pengyuan, 2012. "Impacts of climate change on building heating and cooling energy patterns in California," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 792-804.
    14. Sudhakara Reddy, B. & Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle, 2013. "Energy in the development strategy of Indian households—the missing half," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 203-210.
    15. Fumo, Nelson, 2014. "A review on the basics of building energy estimation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 53-60.
    16. Weiss, Julika & Dunkelberg, Elisa & Vogelpohl, Thomas, 2012. "Improving policy instruments to better tap into homeowner refurbishment potential: Lessons learned from a case study in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 406-415.
    17. Eom, Jiyong & Clarke, Leon & Kim, Son H. & Kyle, Page & Patel, Pralit, 2012. "China's building energy demand: Long-term implications from a detailed assessment," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 405-419.
    18. Roshan, Gh.R. & Orosa, J.A & Nasrabadi, T., 2012. "Simulation of climate change impact on energy consumption in buildings, case study of Iran," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 731-739.
    19. Beccali, Marco & Cellura, Maurizio & Fontana, Mario & Longo, Sonia & Mistretta, Marina, 2013. "Energy retrofit of a single-family house: Life cycle net energy saving and environmental benefits," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 283-293.
    20. Nataly Echevarria Huaman, Ruth & Xiu Jun, Tian, 2014. "Energy related CO2 emissions and the progress on CCS projects: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 368-385.
    21. Yuanjing Li, 2014. "Vertical Structure and Forward Contract in Electricity Market," Working Papers 2014-117, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    22. Cabeza, Luisa F. & Rincón, Lídia & Vilariño, Virginia & Pérez, Gabriel & Castell, Albert, 2014. "Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) of buildings and the building sector: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 394-416.
    23. Pan, Wei & Garmston, Helen, 2012. "Compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 11-22.
    24. Ihm, Pyeongchan & Park, Lyool & Krarti, Moncef & Seo, Donghyun, 2012. "Impact of window selection on the energy performance of residential buildings in South Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 1-9.
    25. Maghanaki, M. Mohammadi & Ghobadian, B. & Najafi, G. & Galogah, R. Janzadeh, 2013. "Potential of biogas production in Iran," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 702-714.
    26. Wang, Tao & Foliente, Greg & Song, Xinyi & Xue, Jiawei & Fang, Dongping, 2014. "Implications and future direction of greenhouse gas emission mitigation policies in the building sector of China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 520-530.
    27. Fertel, Camille & Bahn, Olivier & Vaillancourt, Kathleen & Waaub, Jean-Philippe, 2013. "Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1139-1150.
    28. Koo, Choongwan & Hong, Taehoon & Lee, Minhyun & Seon Park, Hyo, 2014. "Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 218-231.
    29. Galvin, Ray & Sunikka-Blank, Minna, 2013. "Economic viability in thermal retrofit policies: Learning from ten years of experience in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 343-351.
    30. Brounen, Dirk & Kok, Nils & Quigley, John M., 2012. "Residential energy use and conservation: Economics and demographics," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 931-945.
    31. Yau, Y.H. & Hasbi, S., 2013. "A review of climate change impacts on commercial buildings and their technical services in the tropics," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 430-441.
    32. Azhar Khan, Muhammad & Zahir Khan, Muhammad & Zaman, Khalid & Naz, Lubna, 2014. "Global estimates of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 336-344.
    33. Schimschar, Sven & Blok, Kornelis & Boermans, Thomas & Hermelink, Andreas, 2011. "Germany's path towards nearly zero-energy buildings--Enabling the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the building stock," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3346-3360, June.
    34. Xing, Yangang & Hewitt, Neil & Griffiths, Philip, 2011. "Zero carbon buildings refurbishment--A Hierarchical pathway," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 3229-3236, August.
    35. Maes, Wouter H. & Verbist, Bruno, 2012. "Increasing the sustainability of household cooking in developing countries: Policy implications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 4204-4221.
    36. Bansal, Mohit & Saini, R.P. & Khatod, D.K., 2013. "Development of cooking sector in rural areas in India—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 17(C), pages 44-53.
    37. Vivoda, Vlado, 2012. "Japan’s energy security predicament post-Fukushima," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 135-143.
    38. Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan & Andwari, Amin Mahmoudzadeh & Wahid, Mazlan Abdul & Bagheri, Ghobad, 2013. "A review on green energy potentials in Iran," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 533-545.
    39. Li, Gang & Qian, Suxin & Lee, Hoseong & Hwang, Yunho & Radermacher, Reinhard, 2014. "Experimental investigation of energy and exergy performance of short term adsorption heat storage for residential application," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 675-691.
    40. Lim, Kyoung-Min & Lim, Seul-Ye & Yoo, Seung-Hoon, 2014. "Estimating the economic value of residential electricity use in the Republic of Korea using contingent valuation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 601-606.
    41. Wada, Kenichi & Akimoto, Keigo & Sano, Fuminori & Oda, Junichiro & Homma, Takashi, 2012. "Energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector and their feasibility," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 5-10.
    42. Fan, Jing-Li & Liao, Hua & Liang, Qiao-Mei & Tatano, Hirokazu & Liu, Chun-Feng & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2013. "Residential carbon emission evolutions in urban–rural divided China: An end-use and behavior analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 323-332.
    43. Lee, Sungwon & Lee, Bumsoo, 2014. "The influence of urban form on GHG emissions in the U.S. household sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 534-549.
    44. Lu, Jun & Zahedi, Ahmad & Yang, Chengshi & Wang, Mingzhou & Peng, Bo, 2013. "Building the hydrogen economy in China: Drivers, resources and technologies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 543-556.
    45. Li, Danny H.W. & Yang, Liu & Lam, Joseph C., 2012. "Impact of climate change on energy use in the built environment in different climate zones – A review," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 103-112.
    46. Liang, Long & Wu, Wenliang & Lal, Rattan & Guo, Yanbin, 2013. "Structural change and carbon emission of rural household energy consumption in Huantai, northern China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 767-776.
    47. Yuan, Xueliang & Wang, Xujiang & Zuo, Jian, 2013. "Renewable energy in buildings in China—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 1-8.
    48. Mohammadnejad, M. & Ghazvini, M. & Mahlia, T.M.I. & Andriyana, A., 2011. "A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Iran," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 4652-4658.
    49. Tonn, Bruce & Hawkins, Beth & Schweitzer, Martin & Eisenberg, Joel, 2013. "Process evaluation of the home performance with ENERGY STAR Program," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 371-381.
    50. Li, Gang & Hwang, Yunho & Radermacher, Reinhard & Chun, Ho-Hwan, 2013. "Review of cold storage materials for subzero applications," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 1-17.
    51. Kelly, Geoff, 2012. "Sustainability at home: Policy measures for energy-efficient appliances," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(9), pages 6851-6860.
    52. van Ruijven, Bas J. & van Vuuren, Detlef P. & de Vries, Bert J.M. & Isaac, Morna & van der Sluijs, Jeroen P. & Lucas, Paul L. & Balachandra, P., 2011. "Model projections for household energy use in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 7747-7761.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Waite, Michael & Cohen, Elliot & Torbey, Henri & Piccirilli, Michael & Tian, Yu & Modi, Vijay, 2017. "Global trends in urban electricity demands for cooling and heating," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 786-802.
    2. Mollahosseini, Arash & Hosseini, Seyed Amid & Jabbari, Mostafa & Figoli, Alberto & Rahimpour, Ahmad, 2017. "Renewable energy management and market in Iran: A holistic review on current state and future demands," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 774-788.
    3. Mata, Érika & Wanemark, Joel & Nik, Vahid M. & Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela, 2019. "Economic feasibility of building retrofitting mitigation potentials: Climate change uncertainties for Swedish cities," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 242(C), pages 1022-1035.
    4. Zhang, Xiaoling, 2015. "Green real estate development in China: State of art and prospect agenda—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 1-13.
    5. Shad, Rouzbeh & Khorrami, Mohammad & Ghaemi, Marjan, 2017. "Developing an Iranian green building assessment tool using decision making methods and geographical information system: Case study in Mashhad city," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 324-340.
    6. Ruparathna, Rajeev & Hewage, Kasun & Sadiq, Rehan, 2016. "Improving the energy efficiency of the existing building stock: A critical review of commercial and institutional buildings," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 1032-1045.
    7. Wang, Tao & Seo, Seongwon & Liao, Pin-Chao & Fang, Dongping, 2016. "GHG emission reduction performance of state-of-the-art green buildings: Review of two case studies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 484-493.
    8. Ahmed, Wahhaj & Asif, Muhammad, 2021. "A critical review of energy retrofitting trends in residential buildings with particular focus on the GCC countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
    9. Sibilio, Sergio & Rosato, Antonio & Ciampi, Giovanni & Scorpio, Michelangelo & Akisawa, Atsushi, 2017. "Building-integrated trigeneration system: Energy, environmental and economic dynamic performance assessment for Italian residential applications," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 68(P2), pages 920-933.
    10. Modeste, Kameni Nematchoua & Mempouo, Blaise & René, Tchinda & Costa, Ángel M. & Orosa, José A. & Raminosoa, Chrysostôme R.R. & Mamiharijaona, Ramaroson, 2015. "Resource potential and energy efficiency in the buildings of Cameroon: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 835-846.
    11. Shi, Jingcheng & Chen, Wenying & Yin, Xiang, 2016. "Modelling building’s decarbonization with application of China TIMES model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 1303-1312.
    12. Levesque, Antoine & Pietzcker, Robert C. & Baumstark, Lavinia & De Stercke, Simon & Grübler, Arnulf & Luderer, Gunnar, 2018. "How much energy will buildings consume in 2100? A global perspective within a scenario framework," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 514-527.
    13. Mavromatidis, Georgios & Orehounig, Kristina & Carmeliet, Jan, 2018. "A review of uncertainty characterisation approaches for the optimal design of distributed energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 258-277.
    14. Edelenbosch, OY & Rovelli, D & Levesque, A & Marangoni, G & Tavoni, M, 2021. "Long term, cross-country effects of buildings insulation policies," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 170(C).
    15. Hong, Lixuan & Zhou, Nan & Feng, Wei & Khanna, Nina & Fridley, David & Zhao, Yongqiang & Sandholt, Kaare, 2016. "Building stock dynamics and its impacts on materials and energy demand in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 47-55.
    16. Li, Xiaoma & Zhou, Yuyu & Yu, Sha & Jia, Gensuo & Li, Huidong & Li, Wenliang, 2019. "Urban heat island impacts on building energy consumption: A review of approaches and findings," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 174(C), pages 407-419.
    17. Ó Broin, Eoin & Mata, Érika & Göransson, Anders & Johnsson, Filip, 2013. "The effect of improved efficiency on energy savings in EU-27 buildings," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 134-148.
    18. Enongene, K.E. & Murray, P. & Holland, J. & Abanda, F.H., 2017. "Energy savings and economic benefits of transition towards efficient lighting in residential buildings in Cameroon," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 731-742.
    19. Friege, Jonas & Chappin, Emile, 2014. "Modelling decisions on energy-efficient renovations: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 196-208.
    20. Shi, Qian & Yu, Tao & Zuo, Jian, 2015. "What leads to low-carbon buildings? A China study," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 726-734.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:43:y:2015:i:c:p:843-862. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/600126/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.