A spatial panel data approach to estimating U.S. state-level energy emissions
We take advantage of a long panel data set to estimate the relationship between U.S. state-level carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, economic activity, and other factors. We specify a reduced-form energy demand model to account for energy consumption activities that drive energy-related emissions. We contribute to the literature by exploring several spatial panel data models to account for spatial dependence between states. Estimation results and rigorous diagnostic analysis suggest that: (1) economic distance plays a role in intra- and inter-state CO2 emissions; and (2) there are statistically significant, positive economic spillovers and negative price spillovers to state-level emissions.
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