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Further evidence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Spain

  • Sephton, Peter
  • Mann, Janelle

Using a long span of data in Spain, Esteve and Tamarit (2012b) reported evidence of a strong link between per capita income and per capita CO2. In this paper we extend their work, finding evidence of both non-linear cointegration and asymmetric adjustment using a novel approach due to Sephton (1994) and Sephton and Mann (2012). The results suggest that there is a long-run non-linear attractor drawing per capita income and CO2 levels together, with asymmetric adjustment.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 36 (2013)
Issue (Month): C ()
Pages: 177-181

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Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:36:y:2013:i:c:p:177-181
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  1. Vicente Esteve & Cecilio Tamarit, 2011. "Threshold cointegration and nonlinear adjustment between CO2 and income: the environmental Kuznets curve in Spain, 1857-2007," Working Papers 1106, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
  2. William A. Brock & M. Scott Taylor, 2004. "The Green Solow Model," NBER Working Papers 10557, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Breitung, Jorg, 2002. "Nonparametric tests for unit roots and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 343-363, June.
  4. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
  5. Peter Sephton, 2001. "Forecasting recessions: can we do better on MARS?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 39-49.
  6. Esteve, Vicente & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2012. "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for Spain? Fresh evidence from old data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2696-2703.
  7. Gonzalo, Jesus & Pitarakis, Jean-Yves, 2002. "Estimation and model selection based inference in single and multiple threshold models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 319-352, October.
  8. Myung Hwan Seo, 2005. "Unit root test in a threshold autoregression: asymptotic theory and residual-based block bootstrap," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6836, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  9. Breitung, Jörg, 1998. "Rank tests for nonlinear cointegration," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1998,65, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  10. Sephton, Peter S, 1994. "Cointegration Tests on MARS," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 7(1), pages 23-35, February.
  11. Choi, In & Saikkonen, Pentti, 2010. "Tests For Nonlinear Cointegration," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(03), pages 682-709, June.
  12. Bierens, Herman J, 2000. "Nonparametric Nonlinear Cotrending Analysis, with an Application to Interest and Inflation in the United States," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 18(3), pages 323-37, July.
  13. Granger, Clive W J & Hallman, Jeffrey J, 1991. "Long Memory Series with Attractors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 53(1), pages 11-26, February.
  14. In Choi & Pentti Saikkonen, 2004. "Testing linearity in cointegrating smooth transition regressions," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 341-365, December.
  15. Fosten, Jack & Morley, Bruce & Taylor, Tim, 2012. "Dynamic misspecification in the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from CO2 and SO2 emissions in the United Kingdom," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 25-33.
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