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Ancillary services in systems with high penetrations of renewable energy sources, the case of ramping


  • Lamadrid, Alberto J.
  • Mount, Tim


Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are likely to continue the upward trend observed in the past decade. The change from dispatchable generation to an environment in which Independent System Operators (ISOs), Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs), Load Serving Entities (LSEs) and consumers dynamically respond to the conditions in the system and help to alleviate the uncertainty linked to RES requires appropriate tools to evaluate the social benefits and costs of different policies implemented. This paper presents a framework for evaluating the aforementioned effects using an engineering and economic optimization model. The proposed framework is applied to a stylized case study with operations on a test network that simulates a typical day. The objective of the case study is to compare the effects of (1) controllable demand, (2) on-site storage, and (3) upgrading transmission capacity. The different scenarios are evaluated in terms of (1) the percentage of potential wind generation spilled, (2) the total operating cost of production, and (3) the amount of installed capacity needed to maintain operating reliability. The results show that controllable demand improves (reduces) all of the three criteria by alleviating congestion and mitigating wind variability. In contrast, the beneficial effects are smaller for RES's on-site storage, because it does not shift load to off-peak periods or reduce congestion, and for upgrading transmission, because it does not shift load to off-peak periods or mitigate wind variability.

Suggested Citation

  • Lamadrid, Alberto J. & Mount, Tim, 2012. "Ancillary services in systems with high penetrations of renewable energy sources, the case of ramping," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1959-1971.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:34:y:2012:i:6:p:1959-1971
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2012.08.011

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Frank A. Wolak, 2007. "Quantifying the supply-side benefits from forward contracting in wholesale electricity markets," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 1179-1209.
    2. Tuohy, Aidan & Meibom, Peter & Denny, Eleanor & O'Malley, Mark, 2009. "Unit commitment for systems with significant wind penetration," MPRA Paper 34849, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Zephyr, 2010. "The city," City, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1-2), pages 154-155, February.
    4. Lamadrid, Alberto J. & Mount, Timothy D. & Thomas, Robert J., 2011. "Integration of Stochastic Power Generation, Geographical Averaging and Load Response," Working Papers 126540, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    5. Timothy D. Mount, Surin Maneevitjit, Alberto J. Lamadrid, Ray D. Zimmerman, and Robert J. Thomas, 2012. "The Hidden System Costs of Wind Generation in a Deregulated Electricity Market," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    6. Michael Maloney, 2001. "Economies and Diseconomies: Estimating Electricity Cost Functions," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 19(2), pages 165-180, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Moarefdoost, M. Mohsen & Lamadrid, Alberto J. & Zuluaga, Luis F., 2016. "A robust model for the ramp-constrained economic dispatch problem with uncertain renewable energy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 310-325.
    2. Majzoobi, Alireza & Khodaei, Amin, 2017. "Application of microgrids in providing ancillary services to the utility grid," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 555-563.
    3. Lamadrid, Alberto J. & Maneevitjit, Surin & Mount, Timothy D., 2016. "The economic value of transmission lines and the implications for planning models," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1-15.
    4. repec:eee:rensus:v:74:y:2017:i:c:p:703-714 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Chattopadhyay, Deb, 2014. "Modelling renewable energy impact on the electricity market in India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 9-22.
    6. Nikolakakis, Thomas & Chattopadhyay, Deb & Bazilian, Morgan, 2017. "A review of renewable investment and power system operational issues in Bangladesh," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 68(P1), pages 650-658.

    More about this item


    Electricity markets; Ancillary services; Ramping costs; Co-optimization;

    JEL classification:

    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
    • L94 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Electric Utilities
    • P48 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General


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