The Hidden System Costs of Wind Generation in a Deregulated Electricity Market
Earlier research has shown that adding wind generation to a network can lower the total annual operating cost by displacing conventional generation. At the same time, the variability of wind generation and the need for higher levels of reserve generating capacity to maintain reliability standards impose additional costs on the system that should not be ignored. The important implication for regulators is that the capacity payments ["missing money"] for each MW of peak system load are now much higher. Hence, the economic benefits of reducing the peak system load using storage or controllable demand will be higher with high penetrations of wind generation. These potential benefits are illustrated in a case study using a test network and a security constrained Optimal Power Flow (OPF) with endogenous reserves (SuperOPF). The results show that the benefits are very sensitive to 1) how much of the inherent variability of wind generation is mitigated, and 2) how the missing money is determined (e.g. comparing regulation with deregulation).
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Volume (Year): Volume 33 (2012)
Issue (Month): Number 1 ()
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- Bird, Lori & Chapman, Caroline & Logan, Jeff & Sumner, Jenny & Short, Walter, 2011. "Evaluating renewable portfolio standards and carbon cap scenarios in the U.S. electric sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2573-2585, May.