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Where are the industrial technologies in energy-economy models? An innovative CGE approach for steel production in Germany

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  • Schumacher, Katja
  • Sands, Ronald D.

Abstract

Top-down computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are used extensively for analysis of energy and climate policies. Energy-intensive industries are usually represented in top-down economic models as abstract economic production functions, of the constantelasticity-of-substitution (CES) functional form. This study explores methods for improving the realism of energy-intensive industries in top-down economic models. We replace the CES production function with a set of specific technologies and provide a comparison between the traditional production function approach in CGE models and an approach with separate technologies for making iron and steel. In particular, we investigate the response of the iron and steel sector to a set of CO2 price scenarios. Our technology-based, integrated approach permits a choice between several technologies for producing iron and steel and allows for shifts in technology characteristics over time towards best practice, innovative technologies. In addition, the general equilibrium framework allows us to analyze interactions between production sectors, for example between electricity generation and iron and steel production, investigate simultaneous economy-wide reactions and capture the main driving forces of greenhouse gas emissions reductions under a climate policy. We conclude that technology specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policies, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure.
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  • Schumacher, Katja & Sands, Ronald D., 2007. "Where are the industrial technologies in energy-economy models? An innovative CGE approach for steel production in Germany," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 799-825, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:29:y:2007:i:4:p:799-825
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    Cited by:

    1. Alexeeva-Talebi, Victoria & Böhringer, Christoph & Löschel, Andreas & Voigt, Sebastian, 2012. "The value-added of sectoral disaggregation: Implications on competitive consequences of climate change policies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 127-142.
    2. Bibas, Ruben & Méjean, Aurélie & Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem, 2015. "Energy efficiency policies and the timing of action: An assessment of climate mitigation costs," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 90(PA), pages 137-152.
    3. Greening, Lorna A. & Boyd, Gale & Roop, Joseph M., 2007. "Modeling of industrial energy consumption: An introduction and context," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 599-608, July.
    4. Cai, Yiyong & Newth, David & Finnigan, John & Gunasekera, Don, 2015. "A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 381-395.
    5. repec:kap:iecepo:v:14:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10368-017-0385-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Arens, Marlene & Worrell, Ernst & Schleich, Joachim, 2012. "Energy intensity development of the German iron and steel industry between 1991 and 2007," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 786-797.
    7. Bohringer, Christoph & Rutherford, Thomas F., 2008. "Combining bottom-up and top-down," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 574-596, March.
    8. Fleiter, Tobias & Worrell, Ernst & Eichhammer, Wolfgang, 2011. "Barriers to energy efficiency in industrial bottom-up energy demand models--A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 3099-3111, August.
    9. Stefan Nabernegg & Birgit Bednar-Friedl & Pablo Munoz & Michaela Tietz & Johanna Vogel, 2018. "National policies for global emission reductions: Effectiveness of carbon emission reductions in international supply chains," Graz Economics Papers 2018-10, University of Graz, Department of Economics.
    10. Xu, Bin & Lin, Boqiang, 2017. "Assessing CO2 emissions in China's iron and steel industry: A nonparametric additive regression approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 325-337.
    11. Frédéric Branger, Philippe Quirion, Julien Chevallier, 2017. "Carbon Leakage and Competitiveness of Cement and Steel Industries Under the EU ETS: Much Ado About Nothing," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    12. Agnolucci, Paolo, 2009. "The energy demand in the British and German industrial sectors: Heterogeneity and common factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 175-187, January.
    13. Ronald Sands & Hannah Förster & Carol Jones & Katja Schumacher, 2014. "Bio-electricity and land use in the Future Agricultural Resources Model (FARM)," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 123(3), pages 719-730, April.
    14. Stefan Nabernegg & Birgit Bednar-Friedl & Fabian Wagner & Thomas Schinko & Janusz Cofala & Yadira Mori Clement, 2017. "The Deployment of Low Carbon Technologies in Energy Intensive Industries: A Macroeconomic Analysis for Europe, China and India," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-26, March.
    15. Boeters, Stefan & Koornneef, Joris, 2011. "Supply of renewable energy sources and the cost of EU climate policy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 1024-1034, September.
    16. Cai, Yiyong & Arora, Vipin, 2015. "Disaggregating electricity generation technologies in CGE models: A revised technology bundle approach with an application to the U.S. Clean Power Plan," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 543-555.
    17. Zhou, Sheng & Kyle, G. Page & Yu, Sha & Clarke, Leon E. & Eom, Jiyong & Luckow, Patrick & Chaturvedi, Vaibhav & Zhang, Xiliang & Edmonds, James A., 2013. "Energy use and CO2 emissions of China's industrial sector from a global perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 284-294.
    18. Pardo, Nicolás & Moya, José Antonio, 2013. "Prospective scenarios on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the European Iron & Steel industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 113-128.
    19. Flues, Florens & Rübbelke, Dirk & Vögele, Stefan, 2013. "Energy efficiency and industrial output: The case of the iron and steel industry," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-101, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    20. André Sceia & Juan-Carlos Altamirano-Cabrera & Marc Vielle & Nicolas Weidmann, 2012. "Assessment of Acceptable Swiss post-2012 Climate Policies," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 148(II), pages 347-380, June.
    21. Patrick Breun & Magnus Fröhling & Konrad Zimmer & Frank Schultmann, 2017. "Analyzing investment strategies under changing energy and climate policies: an interdisciplinary bottom-up approach regarding German metal industries," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 87(1), pages 5-39, January.
    22. repec:wfo:wstudy:61089 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C6 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
    • D5 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
    • L6 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics

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