Exact distribution-free tests of mean-variance efficiency
This paper develops exact distribution-free tests of unconditional mean-variance efficiency. These new tests allow for unknown forms of non-normalities, conditional heteroskedasticity, and other non-linear temporal dependencies among the absolute values of the error terms in the asset pricing model. Exactness here rests on the assumption that the joint temporal error density is symmetric around zero. This still leaves open the possibility of return distribution asymmetry via coskewness with the benchmark portfolio. A simulation study shows that the new tests have very good power relative to that of many commonly used tests. The inference procedures developed are further illustrated by tests of the mean-variance efficiency of a market index using a 42-year sample of monthly returns on ten U.S. equity portfolios.
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