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A neural network demand system with heteroskedastic errors

  • McAleer, Michael
  • Medeiros, Marcelo C.
  • Slottje, Daniel

In this paper we consider estimation of demand systems with flexible functional forms, allowing an error term with a general conditional heteroskedasticity function that depends on observed covariates, such as demographic variables. We propose a general model that can be estimated either by quasi-maximum likelihood (in the case of exogenous regressors) or generalized method of moments (GMM) if the covariates are endogenous. The specification proposed in the paper nests several demand functions in the literature and the results can be applied to the recently proposed Exact Affine Stone Index (EASI) demand system of [Lewbel, A., Pendakur, K., 2008. Tricks with Hicks: The EASI implicit Marshallian demand system for unobserved heterogeneity and flexible Engel curves. American Economic Review (in press)]. Furthermore, flexible nonlinear expenditure elasticities can be estimated.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 147 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (December)
Pages: 359-371

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Handle: RePEc:eee:econom:v:147:y:2008:i:2:p:359-371
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconom

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  1. Christensen, Laurits R & Jorgenson, Dale W & Lau, Lawrence J, 1975. "Transcendental Logarithmic Utility Functions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 367-83, June.
  2. Mayte Suarez Farinãs & Carlos Eduardo Pedreira & Marcelo C. Medeiros, 2003. "Local-global neural networks: a new approach for nonlinear time series modelling," Textos para discussão 470, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
  3. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
  4. Arthur Lewbel, 2001. "Demand Systems with and without Errors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 611-618, June.
  5. Gallant, A. Ronald, 1981. "On the bias in flexible functional forms and an essentially unbiased form : The fourier flexible form," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 211-245, February.
  6. Foster, Andrew & Hahn, Jinyong, 2000. "A consistent semiparametric estimation of the consumer surplus distribution," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 245-251, December.
  7. Chunrong Ai & Xiaohong Chen, 2003. "Efficient Estimation of Models with Conditional Moment Restrictions Containing Unknown Functions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1795-1843, November.
  8. Swanson, Norman R & White, Halbert, 1995. "A Model-Selection Approach to Assessing the Information in the Term Structure Using Linear Models and Artificial Neural Networks," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(3), pages 265-75, July.
  9. Brown, Bryan W & Walker, Mary Beth, 1989. "The Random Utility Hypothesis and Inference in Demand Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(4), pages 815-29, July.
  10. Medeiros, Marcelo C. & Teräsvirta, Timo & Rech, Gianluigi, 2002. "Building neural network models for time series: A statistical approach," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 508, Stockholm School of Economics.
  11. Swanson, Norman R. & White, Halbert, 1997. "Forecasting economic time series using flexible versus fixed specification and linear versus nonlinear econometric models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 439-461, December.
  12. van Dijk, Dick & Teräsvirta, Timo & Franses, Philip Hans, 2000. "Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models - A Survey of Recent Developments," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 380, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 17 Jan 2001.
  13. Alston, Julian M & Foster, Kenneth A & Green, Richard D, 1994. "Estimating Elasticities with the Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System: Some Monte Carlo Results," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 351-56, May.
  14. Blundell, Richard & Pashardes, Panos & Weber, Guglielmo, 1993. "What Do We Learn About Consumer Demand Patterns from Micro Data?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 570-97, June.
  15. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521252805 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. John Gibson, 2002. "Why Does the Engel Method Work? Food Demand, Economies of Size and Household Survey Methods," Working Papers in Economics 02/02, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
  17. McAleer, Michael & Chan, Felix & Hoti, Suhejla & Lieberman, Offer, 2008. "Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Correlation," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(06), pages 1554-1583, December.
  18. Richard Blundell & Xiaohong Chen & Dennis Kristensen, 2007. "Semi-Nonparametric IV Estimation of Shape-Invariant Engel Curves," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 75(6), pages 1613-1669, November.
  19. Suhejla Hoti & Michael McAleer & Daniel Slottje, 2006. "Intellectual Property Litigation Activity In The Usa," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 715-729, 09.
  20. Pashardes, Panos, 1993. "Bias in Estimating the Almost Ideal Demand System with the Stone Index Approximation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(419), pages 908-15, July.
  21. Medeiros, Marcelo C. & McAleer, Michael & Slottje, Daniel & Ramos, Vicente & Rey-Maquieira, Javier, 2008. "An alternative approach to estimating demand: Neural network regression with conditional volatility for high frequency air passenger arrivals," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 147(2), pages 372-383, December.
  22. Walter Beckert & Richard Blundell, 2004. "Invertibility of Nonparametric Stochastic Demand Functions," Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance 0406, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
  23. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
  24. Richard Blundell & Alan Duncan & Krishna Pendakur, 1998. "Semiparametric estimation and consumer demand," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(5), pages 435-461.
  25. Xiaohong Chen & Xiaotong Shen, 1998. "Sieve Extremum Estimates for Weakly Dependent Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(2), pages 289-314, March.
  26. Donald J. Brown & Rosa L. Matzkin, 1998. "Estimation of Nonparametric Functions in Simultaneous Equations Models, with an Application to Consumer Demand," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1175, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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