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What will be the environmental effects of new free-floating car-sharing systems? The case of car2go in Ulm


  • Firnkorn, Jörg
  • Müller, Martin


The purpose of this paper is the discussion of the environmental effects of a free-floating car-sharing system operating in Ulm, Germany. The system, called car2go, allows users to take and leave vehicles at any point within the city limits. Thus opposed to traditional car-sharing, there are no fixed stations and in particular one-way trips of any length are possible without a booking requirement. Since this is the first free-floating system in operation, there is as yet no associated empirical research. Based on primary data from a survey, a model was developed to forecast the environmental impact of car2go. The prognosis considers the period of five years after the launch of car2go in 2009 and indicates a CO2-reduction per average car2go-user. In addition, more than a quarter of the survey respondents stated that they may forgo a car purchase if car2go was offered permanently. By reaching a greater share of citizens than traditional systems, the results indicate that free-floating car-sharing systems could contribute to reducing private vehicle ownership in cities.

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  • Firnkorn, Jörg & Müller, Martin, 2011. "What will be the environmental effects of new free-floating car-sharing systems? The case of car2go in Ulm," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(8), pages 1519-1528, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:70:y:2011:i:8:p:1519-1528

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    1. Schaefers, Tobias, 2013. "Exploring carsharing usage motives: A hierarchical means-end chain analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 69-77.
    2. repec:spr:binfse:v:60:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s12599-018-0532-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eee:tefoso:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Francesco Ciari & Milos Balac & Michael Balmer, 2015. "Modelling the effect of different pricing schemes on free-floating carsharing travel demand: a test case for Zurich, Switzerland," Transportation, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 413-433, May.
    5. repec:eee:trapol:v:63:y:2018:i:c:p:189-199 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Lars Böcker & Toon Meelen, 2016. "Sharing for people, planet or profit? Analysing motivations for intended sharing economy participation," Innovation Studies Utrecht (ISU) working paper series 16-02, Utrecht University, Department of Innovation Studies, revised Aug 2016.
    7. Cartenì, Armando & Cascetta, Ennio & de Luca, Stefano, 2016. "A random utility model for park & carsharing services and the pure preference for electric vehicles," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 49-59.
    8. Jorge, Diana & Molnar, Goran & de Almeida Correia, Gonçalo Homem, 2015. "Trip pricing of one-way station-based carsharing networks with zone and time of day price variations," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 461-482.
    9. de Luca, Stefano & Di Pace, Roberta, 2015. "Modelling users’ behaviour in inter-urban carsharing program: A stated preference approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 59-76.
    10. Mishra, Gouri Shankar & Clewlow, Regina R. & Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Widaman, Keith F., 2015. "The effect of carsharing on vehicle holdings and travel behavior: A propensity score and causal mediation analysis of the San Francisco Bay Area," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 46-55.
    11. Milena Klasing Chen & Sophie Hooge & Blanche Segrestin & Armand Hatchuel, 2014. "Motivations For Innovation In Public Transport: The Benefits Of A Low Cost Perspective," Post-Print hal-00988174, HAL.
    12. Schiederig, Tim & Herstatt, Cornelius, 2014. "Shareconomy: Performance-oriented systems as a strategy," Working Papers 77, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Institute for Technology and Innovation Management.
    13. Nourinejad, Mehdi & Roorda, Matthew J., 2014. "A dynamic carsharing decision support system," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 36-50.
    14. Firnkorn, Jörg, 2012. "Triangulation of two methods measuring the impacts of a free-floating carsharing system in Germany," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1654-1672.
    15. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:2:p:539-:d:132331 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Girod, Bastien & Mayer, Sebastian & Nägele, Florian, 2017. "Economic versus belief-based models: Shedding light on the adoption of novel green technologies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 415-426.
    17. Costain, Cindy & Ardron, Carolyn & Habib, Khandker Nurul, 2012. "Synopsis of users’ behaviour of a carsharing program: A case study in Toronto," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 421-434.
    18. Lisa Ruhrort & Josephine Steiner & Andreas Graff & Daniel Hinkeldein & Christian Hoffmann, 2014. "Carsharing with electric vehicles in the context of users' mobility needs - results from user-centred research from the BeMobility field trial (Berlin)," International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 14(3/4), pages 286-305.
    19. repec:spr:binfse:v:59:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s12599-017-0471-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Ganjar Alfian & Jongtae Rhee & Yong-Shin Kang & Byungun Yoon, 2015. "Performance Comparison of Reservation Based and Instant Access One-Way Car Sharing Service through Discrete Event Simulation," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(9), pages 1-25, September.
    21. repec:eee:transa:v:101:y:2017:i:c:p:218-227 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Susan Shaheen & Nelson Chan & Helen Micheaux, 2015. "One-way carsharing’s evolution and operator perspectives from the Americas," Transportation, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 519-536, May.
    23. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:3:p:639-:d:133961 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. repec:spr:elmark:v:27:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s12525-017-0257-2 is not listed on IDEAS


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