IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Growth and environmental quality: Testing the double convergence hypothesis

  • Bimonte, Salvatore
Registered author(s):

    This paper discusses the double convergence hypothesis (DCH) that the uncritical analysis of the so-called environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) implicitly implies. According to the EKC, empirical evidence would support the hypothesis that economic growth, through a deterministic sequence of phases, would produce cross-country convergence in per capita output and, as a by-product, convergence in (the demand for) environmental quality. However, factual analysis seems to reject the general hypothesis of convergence in per capita output, limiting the validity of such an assessment to the case of homogeneous groups of countries. This is why, to test the DCH, the paper focuses on the original group of OECD countries for which the economic convergence turned out to be true. This allows us to verify whether "green" [beta] and [sigma] convergence follows as a consequence of economic convergence. The paper also tests for a more equitable distribution of protection policies among countries. Unlike other studies, which do not make the DCH explicit and have focused on pollutant emissions, this research explicitly tests for the double convergence using, as a proxy for the demand for environmental quality, the territory set aside for protected areas. The results confirm that, for the selected homogenous group of countries, growth has accompanied the demand for environmental quality. This happens both in terms of conditional and stochastic convergence.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921-8009(09)00127-X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Ecological Economics.

    Volume (Year): 68 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 8-9 (June)
    Pages: 2406-2411

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:68:y:2009:i:8-9:p:2406-2411
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Panayotou T, 1993. "Empirical tests and policy analysis of environmental degradation at different stages of economic development," ILO Working Papers 292778, International Labour Organization.
    2. Robert J. Barro, 1989. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," NBER Working Papers 3120, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Phu Nguyen Van, 2005. "Distribution Dynamics of CO 2 Emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 32(4), pages 495-508, December.
    4. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
    5. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    6. Erwin Bulte & John A. List & Mark C. Strazicich, 2007. "Regulatory Federalism And The Distribution Of Air Pollutant Emissions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 155-178.
    7. John A. List, 1999. "Have Air Pollutant Emissions Converged Among U.S. Regions? Evidence from Unit Root Tests," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(1), pages 144-155, July.
    8. Barro, Robert J. & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Scholarly Articles 3451299, Harvard University Department of Economics.
      • Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991. "Convergence," Papers 645, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    9. De Long, J Bradford, 1988. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1138-54, December.
    10. Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
    11. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
    12. Westerlund, Joakim & Basher, Syed A., 2007. "Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data," MPRA Paper 3262, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Joseph E. Aldy, 2007. "Divergence in State-Level Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(3), pages 353-369.
    14. Grossman, Gene M. & Krueger, Alan B., 1996. "The inverted-U: what does it mean?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(01), pages 119-122, February.
    15. Torras, Mariano & Boyce, James K., 1998. "Income, inequality, and pollution: a reassessment of the environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 147-160, May.
    16. Craig Gallet & John List, 1999. "The environmental Kuznets curve: does one size fit all," Natural Field Experiments 00527, The Field Experiments Website.
    17. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    18. Aldy, Joseph, 2005. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Discussion Papers dp-05-53, Resources For the Future.
    19. Li, Qing, 1999. "Convergence Clubs: Some Further Evidence," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(1), pages 59-67, February.
    20. Stern, David I. & Common, Michael S., 2001. "Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Sulfur?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 162-178, March.
    21. P Ekins, 1997. "The Kuznets Curve for the Environment and Economic Growth: Examining the Evidence," Environment and Planning A, SAGE Publishing, vol. 29(5), pages 805-830, May.
    22. John List & Mark Strazicich, 2003. "Are CO2 Emission Levels Converging Among Industrial Countries?," Natural Field Experiments 00508, The Field Experiments Website.
    23. Antle, John M & Heidebrink, Gregg, 1995. "Environment and Development: Theory and International Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(3), pages 603-25, April.
    24. Unruh, G. C. & Moomaw, W. R., 1998. "An alternative analysis of apparent EKC-type transitions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 221-229, May.
    25. Bimonte, Salvatore, 2002. "Information access, income distribution, and the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 145-156, April.
    26. Kaufmann, Robert K. & Cleveland, Cutler J., 1995. "Measuring sustainability: needed--an interdisciplinary approach to an interdisciplinary concept," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 109-112, November.
    27. Martin Carree & Luuk Klomp, 1997. "Testing The Convergence Hypothesis: A Comment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 683-686, November.
    28. Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
    29. Stern, David I. & Common, Michael S. & Barbier, Edward B., 1996. "Economic growth and environmental degradation: The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainable development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(7), pages 1151-1160, July.
    30. Beckerman, Wilfred, 1992. "Economic growth and the environment: Whose growth? whose environment?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 481-496, April.
    31. Suri, Vivek & Chapman, Duane, 1998. "Economic growth, trade and energy: implications for the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 195-208, May.
    32. P Ekins, 1997. "The Kuznets curve for the environment and economic growth: examining the evidence," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 29(5), pages 805-830, May.
    33. Steven N. Durlauf & Paul A. Johnson, 1992. "Local Versus Global Convergence Across National Economies," NBER Working Papers 3996, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    34. Magnani, Elisabetta, 2000. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve, environmental protection policy and income distribution," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 431-443, March.
    35. Stina Hökby & Tore Söderqvist, 2003. "Elasticities of Demand and Willingness to Pay for Environmental Services in Sweden," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 26(3), pages 361-383, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:68:y:2009:i:8-9:p:2406-2411. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.