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Behavior problems and children's academic achievement: A test of growth-curve models with gender and racial differences


  • Kremer, Kristen P.
  • Flower, Andrea
  • Huang, Jin
  • Vaughn, Michael G.


The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between externalizing and internalizing behavior and children's academic achievement, particularly in terms of whether these variables varied as a function of gender and race. Data pertaining to externalizing and internalizing behavior, academic achievement, gender, and race from three waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N=2028) were used. Results indicate that behavior problems had a negative relationship with academic performance and some of these associations endured over time. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for females compared to males at baseline, but the impact of externalizing behavior on long-term reading outcomes did not vary by gender. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for Black children than White children at multiple points in time. Differences between males, females, Black, and White children concerning behavior and achievement are explained. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future research are also presented.

Suggested Citation

  • Kremer, Kristen P. & Flower, Andrea & Huang, Jin & Vaughn, Michael G., 2016. "Behavior problems and children's academic achievement: A test of growth-curve models with gender and racial differences," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 95-104.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:cysrev:v:67:y:2016:i:c:p:95-104
    DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.06.003

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Angela Lee Duckworth & Kelly M. Allred, 2012. "Temperament in the Classroom," Working Papers 2012-003, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    2. DeLisi, Matt & Vaughn, Michael G., 2014. "Foundation for a temperament-based theory of antisocial behavior and criminal justice system involvement," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 10-25.
    3. Sophia Rabe-Hesketh & Anders Skrondal, 2012. "Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata, 3rd Edition," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, edition 3, number mimus2, April.
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    Achievement; Behavior; Race; Gender; Longitudinal data;


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