IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A review on heat enhancement in thermal energy conversion and management using Field Synergy Principle


  • Zhao, Xiaohuan
  • E, Jiaqiang
  • Zhang, Zhiqing
  • Chen, Jingwei
  • Liao, Gaoliang
  • Zhang, Feng
  • Leng, Erwei
  • Han, Dandan
  • Hu, Wenyu


How to improve the efficiency of heat transport, conversion and management has been the research focus of thermal energy application and related disciplines. Since the Field Synergy Principle theory was put forward, it has been further studied and developed in a wider scope which is an effective research method for enhancing convective heat transfer and other heat transfer processes. This paper investigated the optimization applications in thermal transfer such as heat exchangers, fuel cell, porous medium, solar energy receiver vortex generators and diesel particulate filter, which can improve the heat transfer performance significantly. The field synergy direct application can improve the heat transfer capacity of the finned heat exchanger remarkably with a 7% increase of heat transfer capability and about 14.4% less aluminum for the fin. The heat transfers efficient of the wave fin with elliptic improved 30% with the larger averaged intersection angle compared to wavy fin after field synergy optimized. Better use effects have emphasized the utilization of the synergy approaches to enhance the heat transfer combined with other theories, the total time rates of entropy generation are 7.3 × 10−2 W·K−1 and that is 8.2 × 10−2 W·K−1 after field synergy and minimum entropy generation principle majorization with the same viscous dissipation of 2.4 × 10−8 W. The research results explore extensions of the field synergy theory highly desirable attributes to more diverse and broader applications, which provide a way of thinking and research method for the further thermal energy conversion and management development as far as possible.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhao, Xiaohuan & E, Jiaqiang & Zhang, Zhiqing & Chen, Jingwei & Liao, Gaoliang & Zhang, Feng & Leng, Erwei & Han, Dandan & Hu, Wenyu, 2020. "A review on heat enhancement in thermal energy conversion and management using Field Synergy Principle," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 257(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:257:y:2020:i:c:s0306261919316824
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113995

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Deng, Yuanwang & Liu, Huawei & Zhao, Xiaohuan & E, Jiaqiang & Chen, Jianmei, 2018. "Effects of cold start control strategy on cold start performance of the diesel engine based on a comprehensive preheat diesel engine model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 210(C), pages 279-287.
    2. Yang, Jian-Feng & Zeng, Min & Wang, Qiu-Wang, 2015. "Numerical investigation on shell-side performances of combined parallel and serial two shell-pass shell-and-tube heat exchangers with continuous helical baffles," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 163-174.
    3. Hamid, Mohammed O.A. & Zhang, Bo, 2015. "Field synergy analysis for turbulent heat transfer on ribs roughened solar air heater," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 1007-1019.
    4. E, Jiaqiang & Zhao, Xiaohuan & Liu, Guanlin & Zhang, Bin & Zuo, Qingsong & Wei, Kexiang & Li, Hongmei & Han, Dandan & Gong, Jinke, 2019. "Effects analysis on optimal microwave energy consumption in the heating process of composite regeneration for the diesel particulate filter," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 254(C).
    5. Yuan, Fang & Chen, Qun, 2011. "Two energy conservation principles in convective heat transfer optimization," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 5476-5485.
    6. Hussien, Ahmed A. & Abdullah, Mohd Z. & Al-Nimr, Moh’d A., 2016. "Single-phase heat transfer enhancement in micro/minichannels using nanofluids: Theory and applications," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 733-755.
    7. Hamid, Mohammed O.A. & Zhang, Bo & Yang, Luopeng, 2014. "Application of field synergy principle for optimization fluid flow and convective heat transfer in a tube bundle of a pre-heater," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 241-253.
    8. Ma, Ting & Lu, Xing & Pandit, Jaideep & Ekkad, Srinath V. & Huxtable, Scott T. & Deshpande, Samruddhi & Wang, Qiu-wang, 2017. "Numerical study on thermoelectric–hydraulic performance of a thermoelectric power generator with a plate-fin heat exchanger with longitudinal vortex generators," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 185(P2), pages 1343-1354.
    9. Zhao, Dan & Li, Lei, 2015. "Effect of choked outlet on transient energy growth analysis of a thermoacoustic system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 502-510.
    10. Wang, Yu & He, Ya-Ling & Mei, Dan-Hua & Tao, Wen-Quan, 2011. "Optimization design of slotted fin by numerical simulation coupled with genetic algorithm," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 4441-4450.
    11. She, Yiyi & Chen, Jinfan & Zhang, Chengxu & Lu, Zhouguang & Ni, Meng & Sit, Patrick H.-L. & Leung, Michael K.H., 2018. "Nitrogen-doped graphene derived from ionic liquid as metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction and its mechanisms," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 225(C), pages 513-521.
    12. Wang, Yiping & Li, Shuai & Xie, Xu & Deng, Yadong & Liu, Xun & Su, Chuqi, 2018. "Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator with inserted fins or dimpled-surface hot heat exchanger," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 218(C), pages 391-401.
    13. Peng, Qingguo & E, Jiaqiang & Yang, W.M. & Xu, Hongpeng & Chen, Jingwei & Meng, Tian & Qiu, Runzhi, 2018. "Effects analysis on combustion and thermal performance enhancement of a nozzle-inlet micro tube fueled by the premixed hydrogen/air," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 349-360.
    14. Yu, Zhi-Qiang & Feng, Yong-Liang & Zhou, Wen-Jing & Jin, Yu & Li, Ming-Jie & Li, Zeng-Yao & Tao, Wen-Quan, 2013. "Study on flow and heat transfer characteristics of composite porous material and its performance analysis by FSP and EDEP," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 1367-1375.
    15. Zuo, Wei & E, Jiaqiang & Liu, Haili & Peng, Qingguo & Zhao, Xiaohuan & Zhang, Zhiqing, 2016. "Numerical investigations on an improved micro-cylindrical combustor with rectangular rib for enhancing heat transfer," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 77-87.
    16. Mehrali, Mohammad & Ghatkesar, Murali Krishna & Pecnik, Rene, 2018. "Full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion via graphene/silver hybrid plasmonic nanofluids," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 224(C), pages 103-115.
    17. Yang, W.M. & An, H. & Chou, S.K. & Chua, K.J. & Mohan, B. & Sivasankaralingam, V. & Raman, V. & Maghbouli, A. & Li, J., 2013. "Impact of emulsion fuel with nano-organic additives on the performance of diesel engine," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 1206-1212.
    18. Zhang, Jie & Campana, Pietro Elia & Yao, Tian & Zhang, Yang & Lundblad, Anders & Melton, Forrest & Yan, Jinyue, 2018. "The water-food-energy nexus optimization approach to combat agricultural drought: a case study in the United States," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 227(C), pages 449-464.
    19. Li, Xing & Chen, Ying & Cheng, Zhengdong & Jia, Lisi & Mo, Songping & Liu, Zhuowei, 2014. "Ultrahigh specific surface area of graphene for eliminating subcooling of water," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 824-829.
    20. Cho, Heejin & Smith, Amanda D. & Mago, Pedro, 2014. "Combined cooling, heating and power: A review of performance improvement and optimization," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 168-185.
    21. Wang, Jian & Kong, Hui & Xu, Yaobin & Wu, Jinsong, 2019. "Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow characteristics in finned copper foam heat sinks subjected to jet impingement cooling," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 241(C), pages 433-443.
    22. Zhang, Bin & E, Jiaqiang & Gong, Jinke & Yuan, Wenhua & Zuo, Wei & Li, Yu & Fu, Jun, 2016. "Multidisciplinary design optimization of the diesel particulate filter in the composite regeneration process," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 14-28.
    23. Li, Yuqiang & Liu, Gang & Rao, Zhenghua & Liao, Shengming, 2015. "Field synergy principle analysis for reducing natural convection heat loss of a solar cavity receiver," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 257-265.
    24. Campana, Pietro Elia & Li, Hailong & Yan, Jinyue, 2013. "Dynamic modelling of a PV pumping system with special consideration on water demand," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 635-645.
    25. Lotfi, Babak & Sundén, Bengt & Wang, Qiuwang, 2016. "An investigation of the thermo-hydraulic performance of the smooth wavy fin-and-elliptical tube heat exchangers utilizing new type vortex generators," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 1282-1302.
    26. Luo, Lei & Wen, Fengbo & Wang, Lei & Sundén, Bengt & Wang, Songtao, 2016. "Thermal enhancement by using grooves and ribs combined with delta-winglet vortex generator in a solar receiver heat exchanger," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 183(C), pages 1317-1332.
    27. Jiaqiang, E & Zhao, Xiaohuan & Xie, Longfu & Zhang, Bin & Chen, Jingwei & Zuo, Qingsong & Han, Dandan & Hu, Wenyu & Zhang, Zhiqing, 2019. "Performance enhancement of microwave assisted regeneration in a wall-flow diesel particulate filter based on field synergy theory," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 719-729.
    28. Li, Chuan & Li, Qi & Li, Yongliang & She, Xiaohui & Cao, Hui & Zhang, Peikun & Wang, Li & Ding, Yulong, 2019. "Heat transfer of composite phase change material modules containing a eutectic carbonate salt for medium and high temperature thermal energy storage applications," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 238(C), pages 1074-1083.
    29. Jiaqiang, E. & Zhao, Xiaohuan & Liu, Haili & Chen, Jianmei & Zuo, Wei & Peng, Qingguo, 2016. "Field synergy analysis for enhancing heat transfer capability of a novel narrow-tube closed oscillating heat pipe," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 218-228.
    30. Erturun, Ugur & Erermis, Kaan & Mossi, Karla, 2015. "Influence of leg sizing and spacing on power generation and thermal stresses of thermoelectric devices," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 19-27.
    31. Chen Bei & Hongguang Zhang & Fubin Yang & Songsong Song & Enhua Wang & Hao Liu & Ying Chang & Hongjin Wang & Kai Yang, 2015. "Performance Analysis of an Evaporator for a Diesel Engine–Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Combined System and Influence of Pressure Drop on the Diesel Engine Operating Characteristics," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(6), pages 1-28, June.
    32. Ling, Ziye & Wang, Fangxian & Fang, Xiaoming & Gao, Xuenong & Zhang, Zhengguo, 2015. "A hybrid thermal management system for lithium ion batteries combining phase change materials with forced-air cooling," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 403-409.
    33. Chen, Qun & Wang, Moran & Pan, Ning & Guo, Zeng-Yuan, 2009. "Optimization principles for convective heat transfer," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1199-1206.
    34. Jia, Lisi & Chen, Ying & Lei, Shijun & Mo, Songping & Luo, Xianglong & Shao, Xuefeng, 2016. "External electromagnetic field-aided freezing of CMC-modified graphene/water nanofluid," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 1670-1677.
    35. Guo, Jiangfeng & Xu, Mingtian & Cheng, Lin, 2009. "The application of field synergy number in shell-and-tube heat exchanger optimization design," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(10), pages 2079-2087, October.
    36. Zhang, Yang & Campana, Pietro Elia & Yang, Ying & Stridh, Bengt & Lundblad, Anders & Yan, Jinyue, 2018. "Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 223(C), pages 430-442.
    37. Peng, Qingguo & Jiaqiang, E & Yang, W.M. & Xu, Hongpeng & Chen, Jingwei & Zhang, Feng & Meng, Tian & Qiu, Runzhi, 2019. "Experimental and numerical investigation of a micro-thermophotovoltaic system with different backward-facing steps and wall thicknesses," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 173(C), pages 540-547.
    38. E, Jiaqiang & Liu, Guanlin & Zhang, Zhiqing & Han, Dandan & Chen, Jingwei & Wei, Kexiang & Gong, Jinke & Yin, Zibin, 2019. "Effect analysis on cold starting performance enhancement of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel fuel based on an improved thermodynamic model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 243(C), pages 321-335.
    39. Moeini Sedeh, Mahmoud & Khodadadi, J.M., 2013. "Energy efficiency improvement and fuel savings in water heaters using baffles," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 520-533.
    40. Murshed, S.M. Sohel & Nieto de Castro, C.A., 2016. "Conduction and convection heat transfer characteristics of ethylene glycol based nanofluids – A review," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 681-695.
    41. Islam, M.R. & Alan, S.W.L. & Chua, K.J., 2018. "Studying the heat and mass transfer process of liquid desiccant for dehumidification and cooling," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 221(C), pages 334-347.
    42. Guk, Erdogan & Venkatesan, Vijay & Babar, Shumaila & Jackson, Lisa & Kim, Jung-Sik, 2019. "Parameters and their impacts on the temperature distribution and thermal gradient of solid oxide fuel cell," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 241(C), pages 164-173.
    43. Jin, Xing & Hu, Huoyan & Shi, Xing & Zhou, Xin & Yang, Liu & Yin, Yonggao & Zhang, Xiaosong, 2018. "A new heat transfer model of phase change material based on energy asymmetry," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 212(C), pages 1409-1416.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Dezan, Daniel J. & Rocha, André D. & Ferreira, Wallace G., 2020. "Parametric sensitivity analysis and optimisation of a solar air heater with multiple rows of longitudinal vortex generators," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 263(C).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:257:y:2020:i:c:s0306261919316824. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.