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Towards a Green Energy Economy? A macroeconomic-climate evaluation of Sweden’s CO2 emissions


  • Mundaca, Luis
  • Román, Rocio
  • Cansino, José M.


This paper provides a production and consumption-based empirical macroeconomic-climate assessment of Sweden’s CO2 emissions. The core methodology is based on three complementary quantitative methods, namely energy-economy-environment indicators, econometric analyses, and a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) sectoral model. Based on the latest available data (1971–2011), indicators show a sharp decarbonisation of Sweden’s energy supply mix pre-1990, and reductions or reversals in energy intensity, CO2 intensity and energy use post-1990. Reductions in energy intensity are mostly attributed to substantial increases in economic activity rather than reductions in energy use. Econometric results show that variability of CO2 emissions is best explained by CO2 intensity than any other tested variable. The MRIO model shows that the Swedish emissions trading balance is negative with both the European Union and the rest of the world (i.e. embodied CO2 emissions in imports are higher than embodied emissions in exports). Sweden’s low-carbon intensity is a critical and horizontal explanatory factor in our results.

Suggested Citation

  • Mundaca, Luis & Román, Rocio & Cansino, José M., 2015. "Towards a Green Energy Economy? A macroeconomic-climate evaluation of Sweden’s CO2 emissions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 196-209.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:148:y:2015:i:c:p:196-209 DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.029

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    Cited by:

    1. Markandya, Anil & Arto, Iñaki & González-Eguino, Mikel & Román, Maria V., 2016. "Towards a green energy economy? Tracking the employment effects of low-carbon technologies in the European Union," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 1342-1350.
    2. Jiang, Xuemei & Guan, Dabo, 2016. "Determinants of global CO2 emissions growth," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 1132-1141.
    3. Galvin, Ray, 2015. "The ICT/electronics question: Structural change and the rebound effect," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 23-31.
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    7. Cansino, José M. & Román, Rocío & Ordóñez, Manuel, 2016. "Main drivers of changes in CO2 emissions in the Spanish economy: A structural decomposition analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 150-159.
    8. Meng, Jing & Liu, Junfeng & Guo, Shan & Huang, Ye & Tao, Shu, 2016. "The impact of domestic and foreign trade on energy-related PM emissions in Beijing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 853-862.
    9. Mundaca, Luis & Markandya, Anil, 2016. "Assessing regional progress towards a ‘Green Energy Economy’," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 1372-1394.
    10. Kucukvar, Murat & Cansev, Bunyamin & Egilmez, Gokhan & Onat, Nuri C. & Samadi, Hamidreza, 2016. "Energy-climate-manufacturing nexus: New insights from the regional and global supply chains of manufacturing industries," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 889-904.
    11. Xiao, Yunpeng & Wang, Xifan & Wang, Xiuli & Wu, Zechen, 2016. "Trading wind power with barrier option," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 182(C), pages 232-242.
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