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Farmers' time allocation between farm work and off-farm work and the importance of unobserved group effects: evidence from Israeli cooperatives


  • Kimhi, Ayal


Agricultural cooperatives differ in many attributes which affect members' farm and off-farm earnings in different ways. As a result, time allocation patterns between farm work and off-farm work will vary significantly across cooperatives. Participation equations in farm work and off-farm work of farmers who are members of Israeli moshavim are estimated jointly, including a cooperative-specific factor in each equation. The fixed effects are found to be significant and important, but can be only partly explained by observed cooperative attributes. This provides another support to the Monte Carlo results of Borjas and Sueyoshi, that controlling for group effects is superior to alternative models. The results also imply that unobserved factors have considerable effects on farmers' time allocation, and hence should be controlled for whenever possible.
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  • Kimhi, Ayal, 1996. "Farmers' time allocation between farm work and off-farm work and the importance of unobserved group effects: evidence from Israeli cooperatives," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 14(2), pages 135-142, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agecon:v:14:y:1996:i:2:p:135-142

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gronau, Reuben, 1977. "Leisure, Home Production, and Work-The Theory of the Allocation of Time Revisited," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(6), pages 1099-1123, December.
    2. Huffman, Wallace E, 1980. "Farm and Off-Farm Work Decisions: The Role of Human Capital," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(1), pages 14-23, February.
    3. Ayal Kimhi, 1994. "Quasi Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Multivariate Probit Models: Farm Couples' Labor Participation," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 76(4), pages 828-835.
    4. D. M. Shucksmith & R. Smith, 1991. "Farm Household Strategies And Pluriactivity In Upland Scotland," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 340-353.
    5. J. G. Tokle & Wallace E. Huffman, 1991. "Local Economic Conditions and Wage Labor Decisions of Farm and Rural Nonfarm Couples," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 73(3), pages 652-670.
    6. Borjas, George J. & Sueyoshi, Glenn T., 1994. "A two-stage estimator for probit models with structural group effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 165-182.
    7. A. Kimhi, 1994. "Participation Of Farm Owners In Farm And Off-Farm Work Including The Option Of Full-Time Off-Farm Work," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(2), pages 232-239.
    8. Haruvi, Nava & Kislev, Yoav, 1984. "Cooperation in the Moshav," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 54-73, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Woldehanna, Tassew & Lansink, Alfons Oude & Peerlings, Jack, 2000. "Off-farm work decisions on Dutch cash crop farms and the 1992 and Agenda 2000 CAP reforms," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 163-171, March.
    2. Tocco, Barbara & Bailey, Alastair & Davidova, Sophia & Raimondi, Valentina, 2015. "Women and Part-Time Farming: Understanding Labor Supply Decisions in Italian Farm Households," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211932, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. Tocco, Barbara & Davidova, Sophia & Bailey, Alastair, 2016. "Part-Time Farming in Italy: Does Farm Size Really Matter?," 90th Annual Conference, April 4-6, 2016, Warwick University, Coventry, UK 236291, Agricultural Economics Society.
    4. Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, 1999. "Human Capital, Productivity, and Labor Allocation in Rural Pakistan," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(2), pages 369-406.
    5. Berbel, J. & Rodriguez-Ocana, A., 1998. "An MCDM approach to production analysis: An application to irrigated farms in Southern Spain," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 107(1), pages 108-118, May.

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