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The Effects of Globalization on Wages, Employment, and Wage Share in Austria


  • Özlem Onaran


This paper estimates the employment and wage effects of foreign trade and Austrian outward FDI on employment, wages, and the wage share in Austria. There is evidence of significant negative effects of imports and FDI on both employment and wages. The results are not limited to workers in low skilled sectors. Particularly workers in high skilled sectors experience negative effects. There are also negative effects on white collar workers, particularly due to outward FDI. Even after we take into consideration the positive export effects, it is unlikely that exports offset negative import and FDI effects. The negative employment effect of Austria's investment abroad is primarily due to the rise in the employment in the foreign affiliates in the East. The employment in foreign affiliates in developed countries seems to have a negative effect in services only, which could be interpreted as the horizontal FDI effect. The negative wage effects are originating from affiliate employment in both the East and the developed countries in industry, but no effect is found in the total economy. There is evidence of some positive wage effect of affiliate employment in the East in services sectors. Bringing together these effects we find that the increase in employment in the foreign affiliates of Austria has resulted in a deterioration of the wage share with the effect originating from both country groups in industry, and only from the East in the total economy. Growth of value added as well as non-ICT capital has a positive effect, and technological change (the growth of ICT capital) has a negative effect on employment growth in industry. Technological change effects only blue collar workers’ employment. Technological change also results in a decline in the industry wage share. Regarding import effects, in aggregate total imports also have a negative impact on both employment and wages, and thereby on the wage share in manufacturing as well as the total economy (non-agricultural tradable sectors). The negative impact on employment is particularly due to intermediate import penetration from the East. However, intermediate import penetration from the East has a positive effect on wages (in both manufacturing and the total economy), which might be indicating that intermediate import penetration from the East has resulted in substitution of domestic employment with foreign employment, but in the meantime has resulted in skill upgrading. Intermediate import penetration from the developed countries also has a negative impact on both employment and wages in the total economy. In manufacturing as well as the total economy imports from the rest of the world have positive employment and wage effects.

Suggested Citation

  • Özlem Onaran, 2008. "The Effects of Globalization on Wages, Employment, and Wage Share in Austria," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 34(3), pages 337-360.
  • Handle: RePEc:clr:wugarc:y:2008v:34i:3p:337

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Helmut Hofer & Peter Huber, 2003. "Wage and Mobility Effects of Trade and Migration on the Austrian Labour Market," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 107-125, June.
    2. Lorentowicz, Andzelika & Marin, Dalia & Raubold, Alexander, 2005. "Is Human Capital Losing from Outsourcing? Evidence for Austria and Poland," CEPR Discussion Papers 5344, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Gerald Epstein, 2000. "Threat Effects and the Impact of Capital Mobility on Wages and Public Finances: Developing a Research Agenda," Working Papers wp7, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    4. Marin, Dalia, 2004. "'A Nation of Poets and Thinkers' - Less So with Eastern Enlargement? Austria and Germany," Discussion Papers in Economics 329, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    5. Wilfried Altzinger & Leon Podkaminer & Robert Stehrer, 2006. "Monthly Report No. 3/2006," wiiw Monthly Reports 2006-03, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    6. Martin Falk & Yvonne Wolfmayr, 2008. "Austrian FDI in Central-Eastern Europe and Employment in the Home Market," Aussenwirtschaft, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, Swiss Institute for International Economics and Applied Economics Research, vol. 63(02), pages 195-210, June.
    7. Ozlem Onaran, 2008. "Jobless Growth in the Central and East European Countries: A Country-Specific Panel Data Analysis of the Manufacturing Industry," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(4), pages 90-115, July.
    8. Georg Feigl & Markus Marterbauer & Miriam Rehm, 2012. "Einkommensverteilung und Krise," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 38(2), pages 357-367.
    9. Peter Havlik, 2005. "The New EU Member States and Austria: Economic Developments in the First Year of Accession," wiiw Research Reports 318, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    10. Anastasia Guscina, 2006. "Effects of Globalization on Labor’s Share in National Income," IMF Working Papers 06/294, International Monetary Fund.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yiping Zhu, 2008. "Globalisation, Employment, and Wage Rate: What Does Literature Tell Us?," IMK Working Paper 07-2008, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.

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