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Are the Direct and Indirect Growth Effects of Remittances Significant?


  • B. Bhaskara Rao
  • Gazi Mainul Hassan


Development economists believe that migrant workers’ remittances are an important source of funds for long run growth. Therefore, recent studies have investigated the growth effects of remittances and reached different conclusions. In many such studies the growth of output is simply regressed on both remittances and the channels through which remittances affect growth. Thus there is no distinction between the indirect and direct growth effects of remittances and such specifications may give unreliable estimates because of the correlation between the channels and remittances. In this paper we make a distinction between the indirect and direct effects of remittances. Our model is estimated with panel data of 40 high remittance recipient countries and a system GMM panel data estimation method.
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Suggested Citation

  • B. Bhaskara Rao & Gazi Mainul Hassan, 2012. "Are the Direct and Indirect Growth Effects of Remittances Significant?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(3), pages 351-372, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:worlde:v:35:y:2012:i:3:p:351-372 DOI: j.1467-9701.2011.01399.x

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Durlauf, Steven N. & Johnson, Paul A. & Temple, Jonathan R.W., 2005. "Growth Econometrics," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 555-677 Elsevier.
    2. Aggarwal, Reena & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2006. "Do workers'remittances promote financial development ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3957, The World Bank.
    3. Durlauf, Steven N. & Johnson, Paul A. & Temple, Jonathan R.W., 2005. "Growth Econometrics," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 555-677 Elsevier.
    4. Acosta, Pablo A. & Lartey, Emmanuel K.K. & Mandelman, Federico S., 2009. "Remittances and the Dutch disease," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 102-116, September.
    5. Mark Rogers, 2003. "A Survey of Economic Growth," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 79(244), pages 112-135, March.
    6. Giuliano, Paola & Ruiz-Arranz, Marta, 2009. "Remittances, financial development, and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 144-152, September.
    7. B. Bhaskara Rao & Rup Singh & Saten Kumar, 2010. "Do we need time series econometrics?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(7), pages 695-697.
    8. Adams, Richard Jr. & Page, John, 2005. "Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1645-1669, October.
    9. Dilip Ratha & Sanket Mohapatra & Ani Silwal, 2009. "Outlook for Remittance Flows 2009-2011 : Remittances Expected to Fall by 7-10 Percent in 2009," World Bank Other Operational Studies 10975, The World Bank.
    10. Rao, B. Bhaskara & Tamazian, Artur & Kumar, Saten, 2010. "Systems GMM estimates of the Feldstein-Horioka puzzle for the OECD countries and tests for structural breaks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 1269-1273, September.
    11. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mohammad Salahuddin & Jeff Gow, 2015. "The relationship between economic growth and remittances in the presence of cross-sectional dependence," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 49(1), pages 207-221, January-M.
    2. Batu, Michael, 2017. "International worker remittances and economic growth in a Real Business Cycle framework," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 81-91.
    3. Gazi Mainul Hassan & Mohammed S. Bhuyan, 2013. "Growth Effects of Remittances:Is there a U-Shaped Relationship?," Working Papers in Economics 13/16, University of Waikato.
    4. Gazi M. Hassan & Mark J. Holmes, 2016. "Do Remittances Facilitate a Sustainable Current Account?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(11), pages 1834-1853, November.
    5. Gazi M. Hassan & Mark J. Holmes, 2013. "Remittances and the real effective exchange rate," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(35), pages 4959-4970, December.
    6. Mahmud, Sakib & Hassan, Gazi, 2014. "Consequences of Public Programs and Private Transfers on Household’s Investment in Storm Protection," MPRA Paper 60004, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Konte M., 2014. "Do remittances not promote growth? : a bias-adjusted three-step mixture-of-regressions," MERIT Working Papers 075, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    8. John Ssozi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2016. "The Effects of Remittances on Output per Worker in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Production Function Approach," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 84(3), pages 400-421, September.
    9. Jamal Bouoiyour & Refk Selmi & Amal Miftah, 2017. "Relationship Between Remittances and Macroeconomic Variables in Times of Political and Social Upheaval: Evidence from Tunisia's Arab Spring," Working Papers 1140, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 2003.
    10. Ronald Kumar & Peter Stauvermann, 2014. "Exploring the nexus between remittances and economic growth: a study of Bangladesh," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 61(4), pages 399-415, December.
    11. Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh, 2013. "Remittances and economic growth: A study of Guyana," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 462-472.
    12. repec:bpj:glecon:v:17:y:2017:i:1:p:19:n:1 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Bouoiyour, Jamal & Miftah, Amal & Selmi, Refk, 2014. "Do Financial Flows raise or reduce Economic growth Volatility? Some Lessons from Moroccan case," MPRA Paper 57258, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Cooray, Arusha & Paradiso, Antonio & Truglia, Francesco Giovanni, 2013. "Do countries belonging to the same region suggest the same growth enhancing variables? Evidence from selected South Asian countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 772-779.
    15. Gloria Clarissa O. Dzeha, 2016. "The decipher, theory or empirics: a review of remittance studies," African Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(2), pages 113-134.
    16. Izabela Sobiech, 2015. "Remittances, finance and growth: does financial development foster remittances and their impact on economic growth," FIW Working Paper series 158, FIW.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies


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