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Virtuous circles in science and commerce

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  • Lynne G. Zucker
  • Michael R. Darby

Abstract

. During the formative years of biotechnology, ‘star’ bioscientists possessed intellectual capital of extraordinary scientific and pecuniary value. In America and Japan, 35 percent of star bioscientists became involved with firms in commercialising their discoveries (a crucial determinant of success) versus 7 percent in Europe. Did star involvement come at expense of scientific progress? No, the publication rate of these ‘involved stars’ increased very significantly whilst actively involved with firms. Furthermore, citations per article were unchanged or significantly increased; so quality was maintained. Top academic scientists and firms working together led to faster commercial and scientific progress – a truly virtuous circle. Abstract. Durante los años formativos de la biotecnología, los bioinvestigadores “estrella” acumulaban un capital intelectual de extraordinario valor científico y pecuniario. En América y Japón, el 35 por ciento de bioinvestigadores “estrella” se involucraron con empresas en la comercialización de sus descubrimientos (determinante crucial del éxito) comparado con un 7 por ciento en Europa. ¿Fue este involucramiento a costa del progreso científico? No, la tasa de publicación de estos investigadores estrella aumentó muy significativamente mientras que estaban activamente involucrados con dichas empresas. Es más, el número de citas de sus artículos no cambiaron o aumentaron significativamente, y por tanto la calidad se ha mantenido. Los investigadores más eminentes y las empresas punteras trabajando juntos nos llevan más rápidamente al progreso comercial y científico – un círculo virtuoso verdadero.

Suggested Citation

  • Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby, 2007. "Virtuous circles in science and commerce," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(3), pages 445-470, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:presci:v:86:y:2007:i:3:p:445-470
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1435-5957.2007.00133.x
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    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1435-5957.2007.00133.x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael R. Darby & Lynne G. Zucker, 2006. "Innovation, Competition and Welfare-Enhancing Monopoly," NBER Working Papers 12094, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Eaton, Jonathan & Kortum, Samuel, 1996. "Trade in ideas Patenting and productivity in the OECD," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-4), pages 251-278, May.
    3. Head, Keith & Ries, John & Swenson, Deborah, 1995. "Agglomeration benefits and location choice: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing investments in the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 223-247, May.
    4. Nelson, Richard R. & Wolff, Edward N., 1997. "Factors behind cross-industry differences in technical progress," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 205-220, June.
    5. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 1994. "International patenting and technology diffusion," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-35, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), revised 1994.
    6. Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby, 2014. "Movement of Star Scientists and Engineers and High-Tech Firm Entry," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 115-116, pages 125-175.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zhifeng Yin & Qiang Zhi, 2017. "Dancing with the academic elite: a promotion or hindrance of research production?," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 110(1), pages 17-41, January.
    2. Jinyoung Kim & Sangjoon Lee & Gerald Marschke, 2014. "Impact of university scientists on innovations in nanotechnology," Chapters, in: Sanghoon Ahn & Bronwyn H. Hall & Keun Lee (ed.),Intellectual Property for Economic Development, chapter 6, pages 141-158, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Autant-Bernard, Corinne & Fadairo, Muriel & Massard, Nadine, 2013. "Knowledge diffusion and innovation policies within the European regions: Challenges based on recent empirical evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 196-210.
    4. Teodora Diana Corsatea, 2016. "Localised knowledge, local policies and regional innovation activity for renewable energy technologies: Evidence from Italy," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(3), pages 443-466, August.
    5. Michaela Trippl & Gunther Maier, 2010. "Knowledge spillover agents and regional development," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(2), pages 229-233, June.
    6. Lin, Jun-You, 2017. "Balancing industry collaboration and academic innovation: The contingent role of collaboration-specific attributes," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 216-228.
    7. Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby, 2009. "Star Scientists, Innovation and Regional and National Immigration," Chapters, in: David B. Audretsch & Robert E. Litan & Robert Strom (ed.),Entrepreneurship and Openness, chapter 6, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Corinne Autant-Bernard & Pascal Billand & Nadine Massard, 2012. "Innovation and Space – From Externalities to Networks," Chapters, in: Charlie Karlsson & Börje Johansson & Roger R. Stough (ed.),The Regional Economics of Knowledge and Talent, chapter 3, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. Rivera, Rene & Sampedro, Jose Luis & Dutrenit, Gabriela & Ekboir, Javier Mario & Vera-Cruz, Alexandre O., 2009. "How productive are academic researchers in agriculture-related sciences? The Mexican case," MERIT Working Papers 2009-038, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    10. Rivera-Huerta, René & Dutrénit, Gabriela & Ekboir, Javier Mario & Sampedro, José Luis & Vera-Cruz, Alexandre O., 2011. "Do linkages between farmers and academic researchers influence researcher productivity? The Mexican case," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 932-942, September.
    11. Dirk Czarnitzki & Andrew Toole, 2010. "Is there a trade-off between academic research and faculty entrepreneurship? Evidence from US NIH supported biomedical researchers," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(5), pages 505-520.
    12. Teodora Corsatea & Hubert Jayet, 2014. "Spatial patterns of innovation activities in France: market’s role versus public research efforts," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 52(3), pages 739-762, May.
    13. Lynne G. Zucker & Michael R. Darby, 2014. "Defacto and Deeded Intellectual Property: Knowledge-Driven Co-Evolution of Firm Collaboration Boundaries and IPR Stragtegy," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 115-116, pages 221-251.
    14. Walsh, John P. & Huang, Hsini, 2014. "Local context, academic entrepreneurship and open science: Publication secrecy and commercial activity among Japanese and US scientists," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 245-260.
    15. Corinne Autant-Bernard, 2015. "Que savons-nous de l’impact économique des parcs scientifiques ? Une revue de la littérature," Working Papers halshs-01211662, HAL.

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