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International Trade in Biofuels: Legal and Regulatory Issues


  • de Beer, Jeremy
  • Smyth, Stuart J.


Governments around the world are betting heavily on biofuels as one part of a solution to a wide range of public policy challenges, from environmental sustainability in the face of climate change, to energy security given rising geopolitical instability, to economic growth especially in rural regions and developing countries. Policy interventions typically take the form of legal and regulatory measures, for example, to drive demand for renewable fuels through mandates, or to subsidize costs through financial and other supports for production and processing of feedstock and output fuels. Such complex legal/regulatory mechanisms combine to create a multi-level or network system of governance. This article analyzes the implications of this complex framework for the production and international trading of biofuels.

Suggested Citation

  • de Beer, Jeremy & Smyth, Stuart J., 2012. "International Trade in Biofuels: Legal and Regulatory Issues," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 13(1).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:ecjilt:125041

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sorda, Giovanni & Banse, Martin & Kemfert, Claudia, 2010. "An overview of biofuel policies across the world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6977-6988, November.
    2. Verdonk, M. & Dieperink, C. & Faaij, A.P.C., 2007. "Governance of the emerging bio-energy markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 3909-3924, July.
    3. J.B. (Hans) Opschoor, 2009. "Sustainability," Chapters,in: Handbook of Economics and Ethics, chapter 69 Edward Elgar Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gamborg, Christian & Anker, Helle Tegner & Sand√łe, Peter, 2014. "Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 326-333.


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