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Money for Nothing? Why FERC Order 745 Should have Died


  • Xu Chen and Andrew N. Kleit


Customer baseline load (CBL) measurement is designed to represent participants' expected usage in a number of electricity demand response (DR) programs. Our empirical results, however, show that CBLs can be systematically higher than DR participants' estimated load, especially for those experienced in DR activities, likely due to manipulation behaviors. Thus, the integrity of CBL may degrade over time. With an inflated CBL, the impact of DR programs may therefore be highly exaggerated, and consumers can be paid money when they are not actually reducing their demand. In particular, we design a manipulation-indicating variable "seemingly unattractive free-money opportunity" (SUFO) and discover system-wide manipulative behaviors that increase with time and are widely adopted by experienced DR participants. We suggest that policy makers in FERC, RTOs, and states regulatory agencies consider the threat of manipulation when modifying DR market rules following the abolishment of FERC Order 745.

Suggested Citation

  • Xu Chen and Andrew N. Kleit, 2016. "Money for Nothing? Why FERC Order 745 Should have Died," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2).
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:ej37-2-chen

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Faruqui, Ahmad & Hledik, Ryan & Newell, Sam & Pfeifenberger, Hannes, 2007. "The Power of 5 Percent," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 68-77, October.
    2. Faruqui, Ahmad & George, Stephen, 2005. "Quantifying Customer Response to Dynamic Pricing," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 53-63, May.
    3. Hung-po Chao & Mario DePillis, 2013. "Incentive effects of paying demand response in wholesale electricity markets," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 265-283, June.
    4. Bushnell, James & Hobbs, Benjamin F. & Wolak, Frank A., 2009. "When It Comes to Demand Response, Is FERC Its Own Worst Enemy?," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(8), pages 9-18, October.
    5. Barro, Robert J, 1977. "Unanticipated Money Growth and Unemployment in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 101-115, March.
    6. Hogan, William W., 2010. "Demand Response Compensation, Net Benefits and Cost Allocation: Comments," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(9), pages 19-24, November.
    7. Duan, Naihua, et al, 1984. "Choosing between the Sample-Selection Model and the Multi-part Model," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 2(3), pages 283-289, July.
    8. Walawalkar, Rahul & Fernands, Stephen & Thakur, Netra & Chevva, Konda Reddy, 2010. "Evolution and current status of demand response (DR) in electricity markets: Insights from PJM and NYISO," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1553-1560.
    9. Hung-po Chao, 2011. "Demand response in wholesale electricity markets: the choice of customer baseline," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 68-88, February.
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    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General


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