Trends in China’s gender employment and pay gap: estimating gender pay gaps with employment selection
AbstractIn contrast to the United States and European countries, China has witnessed a widening gender pay gap in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the size of the gender pay gap could still be underestimated as a result of not accounting for the low-wage women who have dropped out of the labor force. As shown by a large and representative set of household survey data in China, since the 1980s the female employment rate has been falling and the gap between male and female employment rates has been increasing. We estimate the bounds of the raw gender pay gap in China, taking into consideration the different male and female employment rates. To tighten the bounds, we use an instrumental variable, having a child aged less than 6 years. The results support the view that the raw gender pay gap, as large as it has been, is still underestimated.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 42132.
Date of creation: Oct 2012
Date of revision:
Gender pay gap; gender employment gap; bounds; instrumental variable;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-11-03 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEV-2012-11-03 (Development)
- NEP-LAB-2012-11-03 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2012-11-03 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
- NEP-TRA-2012-11-03 (Transition Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Christopher Bollinger & James P. Ziliak & Kenneth R. Troske, 2011.
"Down from the Mountain: Skill Upgrading and Wages in Appalachia,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(4), pages 819 - 857.
- Bollinger, Christopher R. & Ziliak, James P. & Troske, Kenneth, 2009. "Down from the Mountain: Skill Upgrading and Wages in Appalachia," IZA Discussion Papers 4249, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jennifer Hunt, 1997.
"The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
156, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Jennifer Hunt, 2002. "The Transition in East Germany: When Is a Ten-Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 148-169, January.
- Hunt, Jennifer, 1998. "The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1805, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jennifer Hunt, 1997. "The Transition in East Germany: When is a Ten Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?," NBER Working Papers 6167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Appleton, Simon & Song, Lina & Xia, Qingjie, 2005. "Has China crossed the river? The evolution of wage structure in urban China during reform and retrenchment," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 644-663, December.
- Derek Neal, 2002.
"The Measured Black-White Wage Gap Among Women is Too Small,"
NBER Working Papers
9133, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Derek Neal, 2004. "The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(S1), pages S1-S28, February.
- Vera A. Adamchik & Arjun S. Bedi, 2003. "Gender pay differentials during the transition in Poland," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 11(4), pages 697-726, December.
- Orazem, Peter F. & Vodopivec, Milan, 1999.
"Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market : the case of Estonia and Slovenia,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2087, The World Bank.
- Milan Vodopivec & Peter F. Orazem, 2000. "Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 283-303.
- Orazem, Peter & Vodopivec, Milan, 2000. "Male-Female Differences in Labor Market Outcomes During the Early Transition to Market: The Cases of Estonia and Slovenia," Staff General Research Papers 1889, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1997. "Swimming Upstream: Trends in the Gender Wage Differential in 1980s," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 1-42, January.
- Campos, Nauro F & Jolliffe, Dean, 2004. "Does Market Liberalization Reduce Gender Discrimination? Econometric Evidence from Hungary, 1986-98," CEPR Discussion Papers 4350, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jim Albrecht & Aico van Vuuren & Susan Vroman, 2007.
"Counterfactual Distributions with Sample Selection Adjustments: Econometric Theory and an Application to the Netherlands,"
gueconwpa~07-07-06, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
- Albrecht, James & van Vuuren, Aico & Vroman, Susan, 2009. "Counterfactual distributions with sample selection adjustments: Econometric theory and an application to the Netherlands," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 383-396, August.
- Heinze, Anja & Beninger, Denis & Beblo, Miriam & Laisney, François, 2003. "Measuring Selectivity-Corrected Gender Wage Gaps in the EU," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-74, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.