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Male-female differences in labor market outcomes during the early transition to market: The cases of Estonia and Slovenia

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  • Milan Vodopivec

    (GEA College of Entrepreneurship, Dunajska 156, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia)

  • Peter F. Orazem

    ()
    (Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070, USA)

Abstract

Changes in women's relative wages and employment are analyzed, using social security data from Slovenia (1987-1992) and a retrospective labor force survey in Estonia (1989-1994). Estonia adopted liberal labor market policies. Slovenia took an interventionist approach. Nevertheless, relative wages for women rose in both countries. Factors favoring women included: returns to human capital rose in transition, benefiting women; relative labor demand shifted toward predominantly female sectors; low-wage women had a disproportionate incentive to exit the labor market, especially in Estonia. However, women were less mobile across jobs in both countries, so men disproportionately filled new jobs in expanding sectors.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Population Economics.

Volume (Year): 13 (2000)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 283-303

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Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:13:y:2000:i:2:p:283-303

Note: Received: 27 November 1997/Accepted: 20 December 1998
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Keywords: Employment; earnings; transition; labor policy; gender;

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  1. Orazem, Peter F. & Vodopivec, Milan, 1994. "Winners and losers in transition : returns to education, experience, and gender in Slovenia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1342, The World Bank.
  2. Stefan Bojnec & Jozef Konings, 1998. "Job Creation, Job Destruction and Labour Demand in Slovenia," LICOS Discussion Papers 7498, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  3. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-42, June.
  4. Schultz, Theodore W, 1975. "The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 827-46, September.
  5. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1992. "The Gender Earnings Gap: Learning from International Comparisons," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 533-38, May.
  6. Haltiwanger, John C. & Vodopivec, Milan, 2002. "Gross worker and job flows in a transition economy: an analysis of Estonia," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 601-630, November.
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