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Glass Ceiling Effect and Earnings: The Gender Pay Gap in Managerial Positions in Germany

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  • Anne Busch
  • Elke Holst

Abstract

Although there are a variety of studies on the gender pay gap, only a few relate to managerial positions. The present study attempts to fill this gap. Managers in private companies in Germany are a highly selective group of women and men, who differ only marginally in their human capital endowments. The Oaxaca/Blinder decomposition shows that the gender pay gap in the gross monthly salary can hardly be explained using the human capital approach. Adding variables on gender-specific labor market segregation and dimensions of the household and family to the model allows more than two-thirds of the gender pay gap to be explained. However, taking selection effects in a managerial position into account (Heckman correction), the proportion explained decreases to only one-third. This reveals the real extent to which women are disadvantaged on the labor market. In addition, we observe not only that the wages in typical women's jobs are lower than in typical men's jobs but also that women are paid less than men in typical women's jobs. The two-thirds of the gender pay gap that remain unexplained represent the unobserved heterogeneity. This includes, for example, general societal and cultural conditions as well as structures and practices on the labor market and in companies that subject women to pay discrimination and pose an obstacle to them breaking the glass ceiling.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its series Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin with number 905.

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Length: 35 p.
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp905

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Keywords: Gender pay gap; managerial positions; segregation; Oaxaca/Blinder decomposition; Heckman correction;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2011. "A Critique and Reframing of Personality in Labour Market Theory: Locus of Control and Labour Market Outcomes," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 403, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  2. Anna Ruzik & Magdalena Rokicka, 2010. "The Gender Pay Gap in Informal Employment in Poland," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 406, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  3. Anne Busch & Elke Holst, 2011. "Gender-Specific Occupational Segregation, Glass Ceiling Effects, and Earnings in Managerial Positions: Results of a Fixed Effects Model," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1101, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  4. Nina Smith & Valdemar Smith & Mette Verne, 2011. "The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark: Glass ceilings, sticky floors or both?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(2), pages 156-177, May.
  5. Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2010. "Interrelationships among Locus of Control and Years in Management and Unemployment: Differences by Gender," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 974, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  6. Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2012. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being In and Out of Management Positions," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 107(3), pages 449-463, July.
  7. Barbara Liberda & Joanna Tyrowicz & Magdalena Smyk, 2013. "Age-productivity patterns in talent occupations for men and women: a decomposition," Working Papers 2013-27, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.

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