Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions
AbstractThis study used data from the German Socio-economic Panel to examine gender differences in the extent to which self-reported subjective well-being was associated with occupying a high-level managerial position in the labour market, compared with employment in non-leadership, non-high-level managerial positions, unemployment, and non-labour market participation. Our results indicated that a clear hierarchy exists for men in term of how status within the labour market was associated with subjective life satisfaction. Unemployed men were the least satisfied, followed by men who were not in the labour market, while men in leadership positions reported the highest level of subjective life satisfaction. For women, no statistically significant differences were observed among women in high-level managerial positions, women who worked in non-high-level positions, and women who specialized in household production, with no market work. Only women who were unemployed reported lower levels of life satisfaction, compared with women in other labour-market statuses. Our results lend evidence to the contention that men can "have it all", but women must still choose between career and family in Germany. We argue that interventions need to address how the non-pecuniary rewards associated with high-level managerial and leadership positions can be increased for women. Such policies would also likely serve to mitigate the "pipeline" problem concerning the number of women who are available to move into high positions in the private sector.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5116.
Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Social Indicators Research, [online first]
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Other versions of this item:
- Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2012. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being In and Out of Management Positions," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 107(3), pages 449-463, July.
- Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2010. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 299, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
- Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2010. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 998, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J29 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Other
- J69 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies - - - Other
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-08-28 (All new papers)
- NEP-HAP-2010-08-28 (Economics of Happiness)
- NEP-LAB-2010-08-28 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stephanie Seguino, 2007. "PlusCa Change? evidence on global trends in gender norms and stereotypes," Feminist Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 1-28.
- Judith Offerhaus, 2013. "The Type to Train? - Impacts of Personality Characteristics on Further Training Participation," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 531, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
- Javier Salinas Jimenez & Maria del Mar Salinas Jimenez & Joaquin Artes Caselles, 2011. "Educación, participación en el mercado de trabajo y bienestar subjetivo: Estudio desde una perspectiva de género," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 6, in: Antonio Caparrós Ruiz (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 54, pages 882-897 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
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