Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions
AbstractThis study used data from the German Socio-economic Panel to examine gender differences in the extent to which self-reported subjective well-being was associated with occupying a high-level managerial position in the labour market, compared with employment in nonleadership, non-high-level managerial positions, unemployment, and non-labour market participation. Our results indicated that a clear hierarchy exists for men in term of how status within the labour market was associated with subjective life satisfaction. Unemployed men were the least satisfied, followed by men who were not in the labour market, while men in leadership positions reported the highest level of subjective life satisfaction. For women, no statistically significant differences were observed among women in high-level managerial positions, women who worked in non-high-level positions, and women who specialized in household production, with no market work. Only women who were unemployed reported lower levels of life satisfaction, compared with women in other labour-market statuses. Our results lend evidence to the contention that men can “have it all”, but women must still choose between career and family in Germany. We argue that interventions need to address how the non-pecuniary rewards associated with high-level managerial and leadership positions can be increased for women. Such policies would also likely serve to mitigate the “pipeline” problem concerning the number of women who are available to move into high positions in the private sector.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in its series SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research with number 299.
Length: 32 p.
Date of creation: 2010
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in: Social Indicators Research 107 (2012), 3, 449-463
Gender; Management Positions; Subjective Well-Being; Career/Family Orientation;
Other versions of this item:
- Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2012. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being In and Out of Management Positions," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 107(3), pages 449-463, July.
- Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2010. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 998, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Trzcinski, Eileen & Holst, Elke, 2010. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions," IZA Discussion Papers 5116, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
- M12 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation
- M14 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-05-22 (All new papers)
- NEP-HAP-2010-05-22 (Economics of Happiness)
- NEP-LAB-2010-05-22 (Labour Economics)
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