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Occupational Sex Segregation and Management-Level Wages in Germany: What Role Does Firm Size Play?

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  • Anne Busch
  • Elke Holst

Abstract

The paper analyzes the gender pay gap in private-sector management positions based on German panel data and using fixed-effects models. It deals with the effect of occupational sex segregation on wages, and the extent to which wage penalties for managers in predominantly female occupations are moderated by firm size. Drawing on economic and organizational approaches and the devaluation of women's work, we find wage penalties for female occupations in management only in large firms. This indicates a pronounced devaluation of female occupations, which might be due to the longer existence, stronger formalization, or more established "old-boy networks" of large firms.

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File URL: http://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.399424.de/diw_sp0444.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in its series SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research with number 444.

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Length: 39 p.
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp444

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Keywords: Gender pay gap; managerial positions; occupational sex segregation; gendered organization; firm size;

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References

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  1. Anne Busch & Elke Holst, 2011. "Gender-Specific Occupational Segregation, Glass Ceiling Effects, and Earnings in Managerial Positions: Results of a Fixed Effects Model," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1101, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  2. Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender gap in top corporate jobs," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
  3. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2001. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," NBER Working Papers 8200, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  5. Lausten, Mette, 2001. "Gender Differences in Managerial Compensation - Evidences from Denmark," Working Papers, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics 01-4, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
  6. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Achatz, Juliane & Gartner, Hermann & Glück, Timea, 2004. "Bonus oder Bias? Mechanismen geschlechtsspezifischer Entlohnung," IAB Discussion Paper, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany] 200402, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  8. Paula England, 1982. "The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(3), pages 358-370.
  9. Elke Holst & Julia Schimeta, 2011. "Twenty-Nine Women to 906 Men : Continuing Gender Inequality on the Boards of Germany's Top Companies," Weekly Report, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 7(4), pages 19-28.
  10. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
  11. repec:iab:iabzaf:v:41:i:2/3:p:181-198 is not listed on IDEAS
  12. Elke Holst & Anne Busch, 2010. "Führungskräfte-Monitor 2010," DIW Berlin: Politikberatung kompakt, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, volume 56, number pbk56, July.
  13. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1.
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