Glass Ceilings, Sticky Floors or Sticky Doors? A Quantile Regression Approach to Exploring Gender Wage Gaps in Sri Lanka
AbstractRecently developed counterfactual techniques that combine quantile regression with a bootstrap approach allow for the interpretation of lower quantiles of the "simulated unconditional wage distribution" as if they related to poor people. We use this approach to analyse gender wage gaps across the wage distribution in Sri Lanka using quarterly labour force data from 1996 to 2004. Male and female wages are equal at the overall mean, but differ greatly between public and private sectors and across the wage distribution. We find that differences in the way identical men and women are rewarded in the labour market more than account for the difference in wages throughout the distribution. We find evidence of wider wage gaps at the bottom of the distribution in both sectors (indicative of "sticky floors"), but little evidence of larger gaps at the top of the distribution ("glass ceiligs"). Conditional wage gaps increase when controls for occupation, industry and part-time employment status are included, consistent with females selecting into occupations that better reward their characteristics. Policies that address gender bias in wage setting - especially in the low and unskilled occupations - are indicated, while policies that address gender bias in hiring and in workplace practices are likely to be more appropriate than policies that seek to improve womens' productivity-enhancing characteristics in reducing the gender wage gap.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by PEP-PMMA in its series Working Papers PMMA with number 2008-04.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Pavillon J.A. De Seve, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6
Phone: 1-418-656-2131, ext. 2697
Web page: http://www.pep-net.org
More information through EDIRC
Gender gap; glass ceilings; sticky floors; quantile regression; public sector;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
- J40 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1.
- Aysit Tansel, 1999.
"Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials and Gender in Turkey,"
9913, Economic Research Forum, revised May 1999.
- Tansel, Avsit, 2005. "Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials, and Gender in Turkey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 453-77, January.
- Tansel, Aysit, 2004. "Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials and Gender in Turkey," IZA Discussion Papers 1262, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Tansel, A., 1999. "Public_Private Employment Choice, Wage Differential and Gender in Turkey," Papers 797, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- David Neumark, 1988.
"Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
- David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Djurdjevic, Dragana & Radyakin, Sergiy, 2005.
"Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: an Application for Switzerland,"
Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics
36794, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
- Dragana Djurdjevic & Sergiy Radyakin, 2007. "Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: An Application for Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 143(IV), pages 365-396, December.
- Blaise Melly, 2005. "Public-private sector wage differentials in Germany: Evidence from quantile regression," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 505-520, 09.
- Buchinsky, Moshe, 1994. "Changes in the U.S. Wage Structure 1963-1987: Application of Quantile Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(2), pages 405-58, March.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2001.
"Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap,"
NBER Working Papers
8200, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2003. "Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 106-144, January.
- Nopo, Hugo, 2004.
"Matching as a Tool to Decompose Wage Gaps,"
IZA Discussion Papers
981, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Reimers, Cordelia W, 1983. "Labor Market Discrimination against Hispanic and Black Men," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 570-79, November.
- Hiau Joo Kee, 2006. "Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor? Exploring the Australian Gender Pay Gap," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 82(259), pages 408-427, December.
- Aysit Tansel, 1999. "Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials and Gender in Turkey," Working Papers 797, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Mueller, Richard E., 1998. "Public-private sector wage differentials in Canada: evidence from quantile regressions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 229-235, August.
- Barry Reilly & T. Hung Pham, 2006.
"The Gender Pay Gap In Vietnam, 1993-2002: A Quantile Regression Approach,"
PRUS Working Papers
34, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
- Pham, Thai-Hung & Reilly, Barry, 2007. "The gender pay gap in Vietnam, 1993-2002: A quantile regression approach," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 775-808, October.
- Pham, Hung T & Reilly, Barry, 2007. "The Gender Pay Gap In Vietnam, 1993-2002: A Quantile Regression Approach," MPRA Paper 6475, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Angel López-Nicolás & Jaume García & Pedro J. Hernández, 2001.
"How wide is the gap? An investigation of gender wage differences using quantile regression,"
Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 149-167.
- Jaume Garcia & Pedro J. Hernández & Ángel López Nicolás, 1998. "How wide is the gap? An investigation of gender wage differences using quantile regression," Economics Working Papers 287, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Newell, Andrew & Reilly, Barry, 2001.
"The gender pay gap in the transition from communism: some empirical evidence,"
Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 287-304, December.
- Andrew Newell & Barry Reilly, 2000. "The Gender Pay Gap in the Transition from Communism: Some Empirical Evidence," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 305, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Newell, Andrew T. & Reilly, Barry, 2001. "The Gender Pay Gap in the Transition from Communism: Some Empirical Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 268, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Heckman, James J, 1979.
"Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
- Rama, Martin, 1999.
"The Sri Lankan unemployment problem revisited,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2227, The World Bank.
- Cotton, Jeremiah, 1988. "On the Decomposition of Wage Differentials," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(2), pages 236-43, May.
- Ganguli, Ina & Terrell, Katherine, 2005. "Wage Ceilings and Floors: The Gender Gap in Ukraine's Transition," IZA Discussion Papers 1776, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Chris Sakellariou, 2004. "The use of quantile regressions in estimating gender wage differentials: a case study of the Philippines," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 1001-1007.
- Robert Breunig & Sandrine Rospabe, 2007.
"Parametric vs. Semi-parametric Estimation of the Male-Female Wage Gap: An Application to France,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
548, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Robert Breunig & Sandrine Rospabe, 2005. "Parametric vs. semi-parametric estimation of the male-female wage gap: An application to France," ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics 2005-458, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics.
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Elena Glinskaya & Thomas A. Mroz, 2000. "The gender gap in wages in Russia from 1992 to 1995," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 353-386.
- Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
- Maria Tannuri-Pianto & Donald Pianto, 2004.
"Informal employment in Bolivia: A lost proposition?,"
Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings
149, Econometric Society.
- Maria Tannuri-Pianto & Donald M. Pianto & Omar Arias, 2004. "Informal Employment in Bolivia: A Lost Proposition?," Working papers - Textos para Discussao do Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia 317, Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia.
- Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
- John A. Bishop & Feijun Luo & Fang Wang, 2005. "Economic transition, gender bias, and the distribution of earnings in China," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 13(2), pages 239-259, 04.
- Albrecht, James & Björklund, Anders & Vroman, Susan, 2001.
"Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
282, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- Krishna Pendakur & Ravi Pendakur, 2007. "Minority Earnings Disparity Across the Distribution," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 33(1), pages 41-62, March.
- Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226041162.
- Kampon ADIREKSOMBAT & FANG Zheng & Chris SAKELLARIOU, 2010.
"The Evolution of Gender Wage Differentials and Discrimination in Thailand: 1991-2007 — An Application of Unconditional Quantile Regression,"
Economic Growth centre Working Paper Series
1005, Nanyang Technolgical University, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Economic Growth centre.
- Adireksombat, Kampon & Fang, Zheng & Sakellariou, Chris, 2010. "The Evolution of Gender Wage Differentials and Discrimination in Thailand: 1991-2007--An Application of Unconditional Quantile Regression," MPRA Paper 27516, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Zheng Fang & Chris Sakellariou, 2011. "A Case of Sticky Floors: Gender Wage Differentials in Thailand," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 35-54, 03.
- Yolanda Pena-Boquete & Sergio De Stefanis & Manuel Fernandez-Grela, 2010. "The distribution of gender wage discrimination in Italy and Spain: a comparison using the ECHP," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 109-137, May.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Johanne Perron).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.