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Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials and Gender in Turkey

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  • Aysit Tansel
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    Abstract

    There is no evidence on the extent of public versus private wage differentials in Turkey. The main objective of this paper is to examine the factors which explain the employment choice and the wage differentials in the public administration, state owned enterprises and the formal private wage sector in Turkey. Selectivity corrected wage equations are estimated for each sector for men and women separately. Oaxaca decomposition of the wage differentials between sectors for men and women are carried out. For this purpose, results of the 1994 Household Expenditure Survey conducted by the State Institute of Statistics are used. The results indicate that when controlled for observed characteristics and sample selection, for men, public administration wages are at parity or lower than private sector wages in particular at the university level. State Economic Enterprise wages for men are higher than private sector wages except at the university level. Opposite results are obtained for women: their wages are at par or higher in public administration than in the private sector. Further, while men's and women's wages are at parity in public administration, there is a large gender wage- gap in the private sector. Lower private returns to schooling are found in public than in the private sector.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Economic Growth Center, Yale University in its series Working Papers with number 797.

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    Length: 28 pages
    Date of creation: Feb 1999
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:egc:wpaper:797

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    Keywords: Public-Private Wages; gender; Turkey;

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    1. Mueller, Richard E., 1998. "Public-private sector wage differentials in Canada: evidence from quantile regressions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 229-235, August.
    2. Terrell, Katherine, 1993. "Public-private wage differentials in Haiti Do public servants earn a rent?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 293-314, December.
    3. Lindauer, David L. & Sabot, Richard H., 1983. "The public/private wage differential in a poor urban economy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-2), pages 137-152.
    4. Costas Kanellopoulos, 1997. "Public-private wage differentials in Greece," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(8), pages 1023-1032.
    5. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    6. Trost, Robert P & Lee, Lung-Fei, 1984. "Technical Training and Earnings: A Polychotomous Choice Model with Selectivity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(1), pages 151-56, February.
    7. Assaad, Ragui, 1997. "The Effects of Public Sector Hiring and Compensation Policies on the Egyptian Labor Market," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 85-118, January.
    8. Hartog, Joop & Oosterbeek, Hessel, 1993. "Public and private sector wages in the Netherlands," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 97-114, January.
    9. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1982. "Some Approaches to the Correction of Selectivity Bias," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 355-72, July.
    10. Gyourko, Joseph & Tracy, Joseph, 1988. "An Analysis of Public- and Private-Sector Wages Allowing for Endogenous Choices of Both Government and Union Status," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(2), pages 229-53, April.
    11. Tansel, Aysit, 1994. "Wage employment, earnings and returns to schooling for men and women in Turkey," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 305-320.
    12. Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
    13. Schultz, T.P., 1990. "Testing The Neoclassical Model Of Family Labor Supply And Fertility," Papers 601, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    14. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
    15. Lassibille, Gerard, 1998. "Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 83-92, February.
    16. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
    17. Jacob Mincer, 1958. "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 281.
    18. van der Gaag, Jacques & Vijverberg, Wim, 1988. "A Switching Regression Model for Wage Determinants in the Public and Private Sectors of a Developing Country," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(2), pages 244-52, May.
    19. Idson, Todd L & Feaster, Daniel J, 1990. "A Selectivity Model of Employer-Size Wage Differentials," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages 99-122, January.
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    Cited by:
    1. Budria, Santiago, 2006. "Schooling and the distribution of wages in the european private and public sectors," MPRA Paper 90, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Aysit Tansel & Fatma Bircan, 2008. "Private Supplementary Tutoring in Turkey Recent Evidence on Its Various Aspects," Working Papers 451, Economic Research Forum, revised Oct 2008.
    3. Juan Prieto Rodríguez & María José Suárez Fernández, 2006. "Like father like son? Intergenerational links within occupations and public employment," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 178(3), pages 81-111, September.
    4. Jesús Otero & Luis Fernando Gamboa & Andrés García-Suaza, 2011. "An analysis of the relationship between wages in the public and private sector in colombia: a panel data approach," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 008738, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    5. Nopo, Hugo & Daza, Nancy & Ramos, Johanna, 2011. "Gender Earnings Gaps in the World," IZA Discussion Papers 5736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Daoud, Yousef & Shanti, Ruba, 2011. "Private-public sector employment choice and wage differential in Palestine:a gender perspective," MPRA Paper 39782, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2012.
    7. Monojit Chatterji & Terhi Maczulskij & Jaakko Pehkonen, 2008. "Public Sector Pay in Finland," Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics 213, Economic Studies, University of Dundee.
    8. Arda Aktas & Gokce Uysal, 2011. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Turkey Using the Wage Structure Survey," Working Papers 005, Bahcesehir University, Betam, revised Mar 2012.
    9. Dileni Gunewardena & Darshi Abeyrathna & Amalie Ellagala & Kamani Rajakaruna & Shobana Rajendran, 2008. "Glass Ceilings, Sticky Floors or Sticky Doors? A Quantile Regression Approach to Exploring Gender Wage Gaps in Sri Lanka," Working Papers PMMA 2008-04, PEP-PMMA.
    10. Anos Casero, Paloma & Seshan, Ganesh, 2006. "Public-private sector wage differentials and returns to education in Djibouti," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3923, The World Bank.
    11. Arzu Yavuz, 2011. "Productivity and Wage Differentials between Private and Public Sector in the Developing Countries (Gelismekte Olan Ülkelerde Özel ve Kamu Sektöründeki Verimlilik ve Ücret Farklilasmasi)," Working Papers 1103, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.

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