Public–private sector wage differentials and the business cycle
AbstractThis paper uses microeconomic data for the period from 1990 to 2004 to examine the relationship between public–private sector wage differentials and labour market conditions in Finland. The results show that the public sector wage premium is strongly counter-cyclical. On average, a 10 percent increase in the local unemployment rate increases the public–private sector wage gap by one percent. Separate analyses by government sector and quantiles of the distribution of wages reveal that it is local government workers and those working at lower skill levels who benefit more from increasing unemployment rate. The paper also exploits the longitudinal structure of the data to examine whether the results are constant over time. These results indicate that the cyclical pattern primarily emerges in years with deteriorated labour markets.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Economic Systems.
Volume (Year): 37 (2013)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Landshuter Str. 4, 93047 Regensburg
Phone: +49-(0)941-943 54 10
Fax: +49-(0)941-943 54 27
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/621171
More information through EDIRC
Public sector pay; Wage curve;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
- J45 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Public Sector Labor Markets
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Johansen, Kare & Strom, Bjarne, 2001. " Wages and Politics: Evidence from the Norwegian Public Sector," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(3), pages 311-31, July.
- Christofides, Louis N. & Pashardes, Panos, 2002. "Self/paid-employment, public/private sector selection, and wage differentials," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(6), pages 737-762, December.
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wunnava, Phanindra V. & Honney, John K., 1991. "The union-nonunion wage differential over the business cycle : Evidence from PSID," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 97-103, September.
- Alan B. Krueger, 1988.
"The determinants of queues for federal jobs,"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 41(4), pages 567-581, July.
- Alan B. Krueger, 1988. "The Determinants of Queues for Federal Jobs," NBER Working Papers 2499, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alan Krueger, 1987. "The Determinants of Queues for Federal Jobs," Working Papers 607, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Dustmann, C. & van Soest, A., 1997.
"Public and Private Sector Wages of Male Workers in Germany,"
Economics Working Papers
eco97/13, European University Institute.
- Dustmann, Christian & van Soest, Arthur, 1998. "Public and private sector wages of male workers in Germany," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(8), pages 1417-1441, September.
- Falch, Torberg & Johansen, Kåre & Strøm, Bjarne, 2009.
"Teacher shortages and the business cycle,"
Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 648-658, December.
- Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna & Turunen, Jarkko, 2006. "The euro area wage curve," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 93-98, July.
- Mueller, Richard E., 1998. "Public-private sector wage differentials in Canada: evidence from quantile regressions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 229-235, August.
- Lucifora, Claudio & Meurs, Dominique, 2004.
"The Public Sector Pay Gap in France, Great Britain and Italy,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1041, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Claudio Lucifora & Dominique Meurs, 2006. "The Public Sector Pay Gap In France, Great Britain And Italy," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 52(1), pages 43-59, 03.
- Claudio Lucifora & Dominique Meurs, 2004. "The Public Sector Pay Gap in France, Great Britain and Italy," CHILD Working Papers wp04_04, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
- Lucifora C. & Meurs D., 2004. "The Public Sector Pay Gap in France, Great Britain and Italy," Working Papers ERMES 0403, ERMES, University Paris 2.
- David Card, 1995.
"The Wage Curve: A Review,"
722, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1.
- Stephan Danninger & Alberto Alesina & Massimo V. Rostagno, 1999.
"Redistribution Through Public Employment - The Case of Italy,"
IMF Working Papers
99/177, International Monetary Fund.
- Albert Alesina & Stephan Danninger & Massimo Rostagno, 2001. "Redistribution Through Public Employment: The Case of Italy," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(3), pages 2.
- Alberto Alesina & Stephan Danninger & Massimo Rostagno, 1999. "Redistribution Through Public Employment: The Case of Italy," NBER Working Papers 7387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2002.
"The Last Word on the Wage Curve?,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
02-029/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 13 Mar 2003.
- Carlo Dell'Aringa & Claudio Lucifora & Federica Origo, 2007.
"Public Sector Pay And Regional Competitiveness. A First Look At Regional Public-Private Wage Differentials In Italy,"
University of Manchester, vol. 75(4), pages 445-478, 07.
- Dell'Aringa, Carlo & Lucifora, Claudio & Origo, Federica, 2005. "Public Sector Pay and Regional Competitiveness: A First Look at Regional Public-Private Wage Differentials in Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 1828, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Richard Disney & Amanda Gosling, 1998. "Does it pay to work in the public sector?," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 19(4), pages 347-374, November.
- Richard B. Freeman, 1987.
"How Do Public Sector Wages and Employment Respond to Economic Conditions?,"
in: Public Sector Payrolls, pages 183-216
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard B. Freeman, 1985. "How do Public Sector Wages and Employment Respond to Economic Conditions," NBER Working Papers 1653, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Karsten Albaek & Rita Asplund & Erling Barth & Stig Blomskog & Bjorn Runar Gudmundsson & Vifill Karlsson & Erik Strojer Madsen, 2000.
"Dimensions of the Wage-Unemployment Relationship in the Nordic Countries: Wage Flexibility Without Wage Curves,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers
1893, Econometric Society.
- Albaek, K. & Asplund, R. & Blomskog, S. & Barth, E. & Guomundsson,B.R. & Karlsson, V. & Madsen, E.S., 1999. "Domensions of the Wage-Unemployment Relationship in the Nordic Countries: Wage Flexibility without Wage Curves," Papers 99-24, Carleton - School of Public Administration.
- Karsten Albæk & Rita Asplund & Stig Blomskog & Erling Barth & Björn Rúnar Guðmundsson & Vifill Karlsson & Erik Strøjer Madsen, 1999. "Dimensions of the Wage-Unemployment Relationship in the Nordic Countries: Wage Flexibility without Wage Curves," Discussion Papers 99-24, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
- Jan BabeckÃ½ & Kamil Dybczak, 2008. "Real Wage Flexibility in the Enlarged Eu: Evidence From a Structural Var," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 204(1), pages 126-138, April.
- Adamchik, Vera A. & Bedi, Arjun S., 2000. "Wage differentials between the public and the private sectors: evidence from an economy in transition," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 203-224, March.
- Vainiomaki, Jari & Laaksonen, Seppo, 1995. "Inter-industry wage differentials in Finland: Evidence from longitudinal census data for 1975-85," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 161-173, June.
- Blaise Melly, 2005. "Public-private sector wage differentials in Germany: Evidence from quantile regression," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 505-520, 09.
- Björklund, Anders & Jäntti, Markus, 2012. "How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 465-474.
- Laura Pagani, 2003. "Why Do People from Southern Italy Seek Jobs in the Public Sector?," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 17(1), pages 63-91, 03.
- Tuomas Pekkarinen, 2001. "The wage curve : evidence from the Finnish metal industry panel data," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 51-60, Spring.
- Terhi Maczulskij & Jaakko Pehkonen, 2011. "Public-Private Sector Pay Gaps in Finland: A Quantile Regression Analysis," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 24(2), pages 111-127, Autumn.
- Adolfo Maza, 2006. "Wage flexibility and the EMU: a nonparametric and semiparametric analysis for the Spanish case," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(11), pages 733-736.
- Anu Tokila & Hannu Tervo, 2011. "Regional differences in returns to education for entrepreneurs versus wage earners," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 689-710, December.
- Evangelia Papapetrou, 2006. "The unequal distribution of the public-private sector wage gap in Greece: evidence from quantile regression," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(4), pages 205-210.
- Costas Kanellopoulos, 1997. "Public-private wage differentials in Greece," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(8), pages 1023-1032.
- Uusitalo, Roope, 1999. "Return to education in Finland," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 569-580, November.
- Holm-Hadulla, Fédéric & Kamath, Kishore & Lamo, Ana & Pérez, Javier J. & Schuknecht, Ludger, 2010. "Public wages in the euro area - towards securing stability and competitiveness," Occasional Paper Series 112, European Central Bank.
- Ipek Ilkkaracan & Raziye Selim, 2003. "The role of unemployment in wage determination: further evidence on the wage curve from Turkey," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(14), pages 1589-1598.
- Lassibille, Gerard, 1998. "Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 83-92, February.
- Ana Lamo & Javier J. Pérez & Ludger Schuknecht, 2012. "Public or Private Sector Wage Leadership? An International Perspective," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 114(1), pages 228-244, 03.
- Petri Böckerman & Seppo Laaksonen & Jari Vainiomäki, 2010. "Micro and Macro Level Wage Rigidity: Lessons from Finland," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 27-42, Spring.
- Borjas, George J, 1984. "Electoral Cycles and the Earnings of Federal Bureaucrats," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 22(4), pages 447-59, October.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.