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Diferencias salariales por género y región en Colombia: una aproximación con regresión por cuantiles

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  • Luis Armando Galvis

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Abstract

The evidence of gender pay gap is present in the Colombian labor market, as in many other countries. This gap is not homogeneous in the territory, which provides the rationale for a detailed analysis of what is happening in each of the regions of the country. The results show differentials of positive wage gaps in favor of men, in most of the main cities. Not all this difference can be attributed to the existence of discrimination as there exist factors that explain part of the wage gap. To identify the relevance of those factors we use the Blinder-Oaxaca, BO, decomposition in the context of quantile regression. The results of the BO method suggest that wage gaps are not explained by the observable attributes of individuals. These gaps are mostly explained by the effect of pay gaps to attributes such as education, and unobserved attributes. The analysis by cities shows patterns that reveal a higher wage gap in the peripheral cities as opposed to Bogotá, Cali, Medellín, Manizales and Pereira. Differences in compensation to attributes are represented by what is known as the coefficients effect. This effect comprises as well the existence of discrimination by gender, thus this result deserves special attention for the purposes of gender equalizing payment policies. RESUMEN: La existencia de brechas salariales por género es un fenómeno que, al igual que en muchos otros países, está presente en el mercado laboral colombiano. Esas brechas no son homogéneas a través del territorio y ello justifica un análisis detallado de lo que ocurre en cada una de las regiones del país. Los resultados muestran diferenciales de salarios positivos a favor de los hombres en la mayoría de las ciudades principales. No todo este diferencial puede ser atribuido a la existencia de discriminación por cuanto existen factores que explican parte de la brecha salarial. Para ello se emplea la descomposición de Blinder-Oaxaca en el contexto de regresión por cuantiles. Los resultados de la aplicación de la metodología de BO sugieren que las brechas salariales no están explicadas por los atributos observables de los individuos. Dichas brechas son en su mayoría explicadas por el efecto de las diferencias en la remuneración a los atributos tales como la educación, y a elementos no observados. Por ciudades el estudio muestra patrones que revelan una mayor brecha salarial en las ciudades periféricas en contraposición a las de Bogotá, Cali, Medellín, Manizales y Pereira. Dado que el efecto remuneración comprende, entre otros, la posible existencia de discriminación por género, es importante que se le otorgue la debida atención a este resultado para efectos de la formulación de políticas de género.

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Paper provided by BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL in its series DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL with number 007428.

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Date of creation: 15 Sep 2010
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Handle: RePEc:col:000102:007428

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Keywords: mercado laboral; discriminación; capital humano; género; brechas salariales; regresión por cuantiles.;

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  12. Luisa Fernanda Bernat, 2009. "¿Quienes son las mujeres discriminadas?: enfoque distributivo de las diferencias salariales por género," BORRADORES DE ECONOMÍA Y FINANZAS 005242, UNIVERSIDAD ICESI.
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Cited by:
  1. Luis Armando Galvis, 2012. "Informalidad laboral en las áreas urbanas de Colombia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL 009364, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
  2. Andrés Sanchez - Jabba, 2011. "Etnia y rendimiento académico en Colombia," REVISTA DE ECONOMÍA DEL ROSARIO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  3. Luis Eduardo Arango Thomas, 2011. "Mercado de trabajo de Colombia: suma de partes heterogéneas," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009006, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  4. Carmiña O: Vargas, 2011. "Desigualdad de salarios en Colombia: evidencia a partir de encuestas de hogares 1984 - 2010," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 008808, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  5. Juan Byron Correa Fonnegra & Carlos Augusto Viáfara López & Víctor Hugo Zuluaga González, 2011. "Desigualdad étnico-racial en la distribución del ingreso en Colombia: Un análisis a partir de Regresión Cuantílica," REVISTA SOCIEDAD Y ECONOMIA - CIDSE, UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE - CIDSE.

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