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Etnia y rendimiento académico en Colombia


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  • Andrés Sanchez - Jabba



Resumen: En Colombia, los estudiantes pertenecientes a una etnia presentan un rendimiento inferior al de sus pares no étnicos en pruebas académicas estandarizadas, en las áreas de matemáticas y lenguaje. Dicha brecha es persistente a nivel departamental, especialmente entre los departamentos donde reside un alto porcentaje de población etnica. Con base en los resultados de la prueba SABER 11, este estudio analiza la brecha entre el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes étnicos y los no étnicos, y la descompone en factores relacionados con las características observables, como: familia y colegio; así como factores no observables. Se utiliza la metodología de Blinder y Oaxaca, extendida al análisis de regresiones por cuantiles. Los resultados indican que en los departamentos donde la brecha académica es estadísticamente significativa, la mayor parte es atribuible a factores no observables. Sin embargo, para distintos niveles de desempeño académico, el comportamiento de la misma y sus factores explicativos son diversos. Abstract: In Colombia, students from an ethnic group have a lower academic achievement with respect to their non-ethnic peers in standardized test scores on math and language. This gap is persistent at a state level, especially in high ethnic density states. Using information from the state academic test (SABER 11), this study corroborates the existence of an academic gap between ethnic and non-ethnic students and, additionally, decomposes it in factors related to observable characteristics, such as family and school; and non-observable factors. The methodology proposed by Blinder and Oaxaca applied to quantile regression is used in order to determine the existence of test score gaps throughout the distribution of academic performance. Results indicate that for states where there is a statistically significant gap, a sizeable portion of it is attributed to nonobservable factors. Nonetheless, at distinct levels of academic performance, the gap size and the extent to which it can be attributed non-observable factors vary according to the state.

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Volume (Year): (2011)
Issue (Month): ()

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Handle: RePEc:col:000151:009334

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  1. Jairo NUÑEZ MENDEZ & Roberto STEINER & Ximena CADENA & Renata PARDO, 2002. "¿Cuáles colegios ofrecen mejor educación en Colombia?," ARCHIVOS DE ECONOMÍA 003795, DEPARTAMENTO NACIONAL DE PLANEACIÓN.
  2. Victor Chernozhukov & Ivan Fernandez-Val & Blaise Melly, 2008. "Inference On Counterfactual Distributions," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series wp2008-005, Boston University - Department of Economics.
  3. Luis Armando Galvis, 2010. "Diferenciales salariales por género y región en Colombia: una aproximación con regresión por cuantiles," REVISTA DE ECONOMÍA DEL ROSARIO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  4. Carlos G. Ospino & Paola Roldán Vasquez & Nacira Barraza Narváez, 2010. "Oaxaca-Blinder wage decomposition: Methods, critiques and applications. A literature review," Revista de Economía del Caribe, UNIVERSIDAD DEL NORTE.
  5. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
  6. Juan D. Barón, 2011. "Sensibilidad de la oferta de migrantes internos a las condiciones del mercado laboral en las principales ciudades de Colombia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL 008831, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.
  7. Ben Jann, 2008. "The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition for linear regression models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(4), pages 453-479, December.
  8. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
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