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Production of Cognitive and Life Skills in Public, Private, and NGO Schools in Pakistan

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  • G. M. Arif

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)

  • Najam Us Saqib

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)

Abstract

The share of private and NGO schools in primary education has substantially increased over time, though the public sector is still a major player in this area. The present study analyses the factors determining the quality of education offered by the three types of schools and draws policy recommendations for improving primary education in Pakistan. The study compares learning achievement of Class 4 students enrolled in 50 public, private, and NGO schools located across six districts of Pakistan and in Azad Kashmir in terms of their scores in Mathematics, Urdu, and General Knowledge tests. The analysis shows that, practically, there is no gap between public and NGO schools in terms of the test scores of their students. However, a significant test score gap was found between the students enrolled in public and private schools. This gap was largely explained by family background and school-related variables, including teachers’ qualification and student/teacher ratio. However, the performance of private schools was not uniform across districts. In some districts public schools performed even better than private and NGO schools. The findings of this study highlight the need for improving the quality of education in public schools by recruiting more qualified teachers and improving overall supervision. Teacher training is the area where the public and private sectors can benefit by pooling their resources and expertise.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 42 (2003)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-28

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:42:y:2003:i:1:p:1-28

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  1. Zeba A. Sathar & Cynthia B. Lloyd, 1994. "Who Gets Primary Schooling in Pakistan: Inequalities among and within Families," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 103-134.
  2. Dan D. Goldhaber & Dominic J. Brewer, 1997. "Why Don't Schools and Teachers Seem to Matter? Assessing the Impact of Unobservables on Educational Productivity," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(3), pages 505-523.
  3. Naushin Mahmood & G. M. Zahid, 1992. "Measuring the Education Gap in Primary and Secondary Schooling in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 729-740.
  4. Jere Behrman & Andrew D. Foster & Mark Rosenzweig & Prem Vahsishtha, 1997. "Women's Schooling, Home Teaching, and Economic Growth," Home Pages _071, University of Pennsylvania.
  5. Bedi, Arjun S & Marshall, Jeffrey H, 1999. "School Attendance and Student Achievement: Evidence from Rural Honduras," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(3), pages 657-82, April.
  6. Najam US Saqib, 1998. "A Critical Assessment of Free Public Schooling in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 955-976.
  7. Alderman, Harold, et al, 1997. "The Income Gap in Cognitive Skills in Rural Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(1), pages 97-122, October.
  8. Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & David R. Ross & Richard Sabot, 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 229-254.
  9. G. M. Arif & Najam US Saqib & G. M. Zahid, 1999. "Poverty, Gender, and Primary School Enrolment in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 979-992.
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Cited by:
  1. Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2007. "What can Teachers do to Raise Pupil Achievement?," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2007-14, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  2. Shenila Rawal & Monazza Aslam & Baela Jamil, 2013. "Teacher Characteristics, Actions and Perceptions: What Matters for Student Achievement in Pakistan?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2013-19, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  3. Naushin Mahmood, 2009. "Population and Development Demographic Research at PIDE," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2009:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi.

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