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Household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan

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  • Sawada, Yasayuki
  • Lokshin, Michael

Abstract

Human capital investments in Pakistan are performing poorly; school enrollment is low, the high school dropout rate is high, and there is a definite gender gap in education. The authors conducted field surveys in 25 Pakistani villages and integrated their field observations, economic theory, and econometric analysis to investigate the sequential nature of education decisions--because current outcomes depend not only on current decisions but also on past decisions. Their full-information maximum likelihood estimate of the sequential schooling decision model reveals important dynamics affecting the gender gap in education, the effects of transitory income and wealth, and intrahousehold resource allocation patterns. They find, among other things, that in rural Pakistan: 1) There is a high educational retention rate, conditional on school entry, and that male and female schooling progression rates become comparable at higher levels of education. 2) A household's human and physical assets and changes in its income significantly affect children's education patterns. Birth order affects siblings'competition for resources. 3) Serious supply-side constraints on village girls'primary education suggest the importance of supply-side policy interventions in Pakistan's rural primary education--for example, providing more girls'primary schools close to villages and employing more female teachers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2541.

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Date of creation: 28 Feb 2001
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2541

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Keywords: Economic Theory&Research; Teaching and Learning; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Primary Education; Gender and Education;

References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M Stern, 2002. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," Working Papers, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan 483, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  2. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2003. "Children in Different Activities: Child Schooling and Child Labour," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 137-160.
  3. SIDDIQUI, Anjum & IRAM, Uzma, 2007. "Socioeconomic Determinants Of School Progression In Pakistan," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 7(2), pages 179-192.
  4. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Karamat Ali, 2005. "Bargaining Over Sons' and Daughters' Schooling-Probit Analysis of Household Behavior," HEW, EconWPA 0505002, EconWPA.
  5. John Matovu & Era Dabla-Norris, 2002. "Composition of Government Expenditures and Demand for Education in Developing Countries," IMF Working Papers, International Monetary Fund 02/78, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Canals-Cerda, Jose & Ridao-Cano, Cristobal, 2004. "The dynamics of school and work in rural Bangladesh," Policy Research Working Paper Series, The World Bank 3330, The World Bank.
  7. Yasuyuki Sawada, 2003. "Income Risks, Gender, and Human Capital Investment in a Developing Country," CIRJE F-Series, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo CIRJE-F-198, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  8. Sawada, Yasuyuki & Lokshin, Michael, 2009. "Obstacles to school progression in rural Pakistan: An analysis of gender and sibling rivalry using field survey data," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 335-347, March.
  9. Okumu, Ibrahim Mike & Nakajjo, Alex & Isoke, Doreen, 2008. "Socioeconomic determinants of primary school dropout: The logistic model analysis," Research Series, Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) 93855, Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC).
  10. Zeba A. Sathar & Asif Wazir & Maqsood Sadiq, 2013. "Struggling against the Odds of Poverty, Access, and Gender: Secondary Schooling for Girls in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 67-92, September.
  11. World Bank, 2008. "World Development Report 2007 Development and the Next Generation," Working Papers id:1755, eSocialSciences.
  12. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2010. "Who are the children going to school in Urban Punjab (Pakistan)?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(6), pages 442-465, May.
  13. Tidiane Kinda, 2010. "Choc de revenu et éducation des enfants en présence d’imperfection du marché du crédit. Le cas du Malawi," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain), Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) 2010043, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  14. Lodhi, Abdul Salam & Tsegai, Daniel W. & Gerber, Nicolas, 2011. "Determinants of participation in child’s education and alternative activities in Pakistan," Discussion Papers, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF) 119110, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
  15. Asma Hyder & Jere R. Behrman & Hans-Peter Kohler, 2012. "Negative Economic Shocks and Child Schooling: Evidence from Rural Malawi," PIER Working Paper Archive 12-039, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  16. Behrman, Jere R. & Ross, David & Sabot, Richard, 2008. "Improving quality versus increasing the quantity of schooling: Estimates of rates of return from rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 94-104, February.
  17. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Karamat Ali, 2005. "Who Are Schooled in Urban Pakistan?," HEW, EconWPA 0505003, EconWPA.

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