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An International Perspective on Pakistani Human Capital Investments in the Last Quarter Century

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  • Jere R. Behrman

    (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.)

  • Ryan Schneider

    (Yale.)

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to place Pakistani human capital investments in the past quarter century in an international perspective. As background, a simple analytical perspective is presented first. Then empirical experience from various developing countries is summarised. This relates to some dimensions of the determinants and the impact of human capital investments and related policies. Next, various dimensions of Pakistani human capital investments in schooling and health are compared with the international experience of the past quarter century, controlling for per capita income and initial literacy rates and subject to caveates about such comparisons. These comparisons suggest that, in the aggregate, Pakistan has had relatively low investments in schooling and relatively high investments in health. Consideration of the composition of these investments suggests that, in a comparative sense, Pakistani investments have been skewed towards higher rather than basic education, towards physician-intensive curative rather than basic preventative health care, towards males relative to females, and towards middle-and upper-income groups that tend to benefit more from post-primary schooling and from physician-related health services. The concluding section speculates on the implications of this perspective for Pakistani human capital investment policies.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 32 (1993)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-68

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:32:y:1993:i:1:p:1-68

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  1. George Psacharopoulos, 1985. "Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 20(4), pages 583-604.
  2. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  3. Behrman, Jere R & Birdsall, Nancy, 1983. "The Quality of Schooling: Quantity Alone is Misleading," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 928-46, December.
  4. Bahrman, J.R., 1991. "Investing in Female Education for Development: Women Development Strategy for the 1990's in Asia and the Near East," Center for Development Economics 129, Department of Economics, Williams College.
  5. Behrman, Jere R., 1987. "Schooling in developing countries: Which countries are the Over- and underachievers and what is the schooling impact?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 111-127, April.
  6. Haddad, W.D. & Carnoy, M. & Rinaldi, R. & Regel, O., 1990. "Education And Development; Evidence For New Priorities," World Bank - Discussion Papers 95, World Bank.
  7. Azariadis, Costas & Drazen, Allan, 1990. "Threshold Externalities in Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 105(2), pages 501-26, May.
  8. Schultz, T. Paul, 1988. "Education investments and returns," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 543-630 Elsevier.
  9. Psacharopoulos, George, 1988. "Education and Development: A Review," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 3(1), pages 99-116, January.
  10. Schultz, T.P., 1990. "Returns To Women'S Education," Papers 603, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
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Cited by:
  1. Sawada, Yasayuki & Lokshin, Michael, 2001. "Household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2541, The World Bank.
  2. Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Lavy, Victor & Menon, Rekha, 1997. "Child nutrition, child health, and school enrollment : a longitudinal analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1700, The World Bank.
  3. Yasuyuki Sawada & Michael Lokshin, 2007. "Obstacles to School Progression in Rural Pakistan: An Analysis of Gender and Sibling Rivalry Using Field Survey Data," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-484, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  4. Alderman, Harold & Behrman, Jere R. & Khan, Shahrukh & Ross, David R. & Sabot, Richard, 1996. "Decomposing the regional gap in cognitive skills in rural Pakistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-76.
  5. Yasuyuki Sawada, 1997. "Human Capital Investments in Pakistan: Implications of Micro Evidence from Rural Households," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 695-712.
  6. Behrman, Jere R. & Khan, Shahrukh & Ross, David & Sabot, Richard, 1997. "School quality and cognitive achievement production: A case study for rural Pakistan," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 127-142, April.
  7. Behrman, Jere R. & Ross, David & Sabot, Richard, 2008. "Improving quality versus increasing the quantity of schooling: Estimates of rates of return from rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 94-104, February.

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