Kyoto and the carbon footprint of nations
AbstractThe carbon footprint of a country refers to the flow of CO2 emissions caused by domestic absorption (i.e., consumption and investment) activities. Trade in goods drives a wedge between the footprint and domestic emissions. We provide a new panel database on carbon footprints and carbon net trade. Using a first-differenced IV estimation strategy, we evaluate the effects of ratification of binding Kyoto commitments on the carbon footprint and emissions. Instrumenting countries' Kyoto commitment by their participation in the International Criminal Court, we show that Kyoto commitment has reduced domestic emissions in committed countries by about 7%, has not lowered carbon footprints, but has increased the share of imported over domestic emissions by about 14 percentage points. It follows that the Kyoto Protocol has had at best no effect on world-wide emissions. The results highlight the difficulties of unilateral climate policies.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.
Volume (Year): 63 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622870
Carbon content of trade; Carbon footprint; Carbon leakage; Climate policy; Evaluation model; Instrumental variables;
Other versions of this item:
- F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
- F53 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
- Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters
- Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004.
"How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275, February.
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?," NBER Working Papers 8841, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997.
"Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments,"
Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
- Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," NBER Technical Working Papers 0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Matthew A. Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors On Air Pollution," Labor and Demography 0312005, EconWPA, revised 13 May 2004.
- de Melo, Jaime & Mathys, Nicole Andréa, 2010. "Trade and Climate Change: The Challenges Ahead," CEPR Discussion Papers 8032, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Richard Paap & Frank Kleibergen, 2004.
"Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition,"
Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings
195, Econometric Society.
- Kleibergen, Frank & Paap, Richard, 2006. "Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 97-126, July.
- Frank Kleibergen & Richard Paap, 2003. "Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-003/4, Tinbergen Institute.
- Kleibergen, F.R. & Paap, R., 2003. "Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2003-01, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
- Daniel Trefler & Susan Chun Zhu, 2005.
"The Structure of Factor Content Predictions,"
NBER Working Papers
11221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Babiker, Mustafa H., 2005. "Climate change policy, market structure, and carbon leakage," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 421-445, March.
- Stern, David I., 2004.
"The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve,"
Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
- David I. Stern, 2003. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0302, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- Andrew K. Rose, 2002.
"Do We Really KNow that the WTO Increases Trade?,"
182002, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- Rose, Andrew K, 2002.
"Do WTO Members have More Liberal Trade Policy?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
3659, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2000.
"Free Trade and Global Warming: A Trade Theory View of the Kyoto Protocol,"
NBER Working Papers
7657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Copeland, Brian R. & Taylor, M. Scott, 2005. "Free trade and global warming: a trade theory view of the Kyoto protocol," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 205-234, March.
- Copeland,B.R. & Taylor,M.S., 2000. "Free trade and global warming : a trade theory view of the Kyoto protocol," Working papers 4, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Aakvik, Arild & Tjøtta, Sigve, 2007.
"Do Collective Actions Clear Common Air? The Effect of International Environmental Protocols on Sulphur Emissions,"
Working Papers in Economics
10/07, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
- Aakvik, Arild & Tjøtta, Sigve, 2011. "Do collective actions clear common air? The effect of international environmental protocols on sulphur emissions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 343-351, June.
- Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-29, October.
- McGuire, M.C. & Andreoni, J., 1991.
"Identifying the Free Riders: A Simple Algorithm for Determining who will Contribute to Public Good,"
90-92-03, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Andreoni, James & McGuire, Martin C., 1993. "Identifying the free riders : A simple algorithm for determining who will contribute to a public good," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 447-454, July.
- Dreher, Axel & Walter, Stefanie, 2010.
"Does the IMF Help or Hurt? The Effect of IMF Programs on the Likelihood and Outcome of Currency Crises,"
Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 1-18, January.
- Axel Dreher & Stefanie Walter, 2008. "Does the IMF Help or Hurt? The Effect of IMF programs on the likelihood and outcome of currency crises," KOF Working papers 08-186, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
- Kurt J. Beron & James C. Murdoch & Wim P. M. Vijverberg, 2003. "Why Cooperate? Public Goods, Economic Power, and the Montreal Protocol," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 286-297, May.
- Joshua Elliott & Ian Foster & Samuel Kortum & Todd Munson & Fernando Pérez Cervantes & David Weisbach, 2010. "Trade and Carbon Taxes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 465-69, May.
- Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
- Andrews,Donald W. K. & Stock,James H. (ed.), 2005. "Identification and Inference for Econometric Models," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521844413, December.
- Aaditya Mattoo & Arvind Subramanian & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe & Jianwu He, 2009.
"Reconciling Climate Change and Trade Policy,"
Working Paper Series
WP09-15, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Mattoo, Aaditya & Subramanian, Arvind & van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique & He, Jianwu, 2009. "Reconciling climate change and trade policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5123, The World Bank.
- Aaditya Mattoo & Arvind Subramanian & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe & Jianwu He, 2009. "Reconciling Climate Change and Trade Policy," Working Papers 189, Center for Global Development.
- James H. Stock & Motohiro Yogo, 2002. "Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression," NBER Technical Working Papers 0284, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ulrich J. Wagner, 2009. "The voluntary provision of a pure public good? Another look at CFC emissions and the Montreal Protocol," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(1), pages 183-196, January.
- Murdoch, James C. & Sandler, Todd, 1997. "The voluntary provision of a pure public good: The case of reduced CFC emissions and the Montreal Protocol," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 331-349, February.
- Mark E Schaffer, 2005. "XTIVREG2: Stata module to perform extended IV/2SLS, GMM and AC/HAC, LIML and k-class regression for panel data models," Statistical Software Components S456501, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 24 Jul 2012.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel J. Felbermayr, 2011. "Kyoto and Carbon Leakage: An Empirical Analysis of the Carbon Content of Bilateral Trade," CESifo Working Paper Series 3661, CESifo Group Munich.
- Stratford Douglas & Shuichiro Nishioka, 2009.
"International Differences in Emissions Intensity and Emissions Content of Global Trade,"
09-02, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
- Douglas, Stratford & Nishioka, Shuichiro, 2012. "International differences in emissions intensity and emissions content of global trade," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 415-427.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel J. Felbermayr, 2011.
"Estimating the effects of Kyoto on bilateraltrade flows using matching econometrics,"
Ifo Working Paper Series
Ifo Working Paper No. 119, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2013. "Estimating the Effects of Kyoto on Bilateral Trade Flows Using Matching Econometrics," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 303-330, 03.
- Christian Almer & Ralph Winkler, 2012. "The Effect of Kyoto Emission Targets on Domestic CO2 Emissions: A Synthetic Control Approach," Diskussionsschriften dp1202, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
- Grether, Jean-Marie & Mathys, Nicole A., 2013. "The pollution terms of trade and its five components," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 19-31.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2011. "Auswirkungen der Kyoto-Verpflichtungen auf Emissionen und Carbon Footprints," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 64(22), pages 23-26, November.
- Daniel Becker & Magdalena Brezskot & Wolfgang Peters & Ulrike Will, 2013. "Grenzausgleichsinstrumente bei unilateralen Klimaschutzmaßnahmen. Eine ökonomische und WTO-rechtliche Analyse," Discussion Paper Series RECAP15 010, RECAP15, European University Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder).
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr & Inga Heiland, 2014. "EEG und internationaler Wettbewerb: Ist die besondere Ausgleichsregelung haltbar?," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 67(02), pages 23-29, 01.
- Nina Czernich, 2011. "Broadband Internet and Political Participation - Evidence for Germany," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 104, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2011. "Carbon Footprints," Ifo Schnelldienst, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 64(21), pages 11-16, November.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.