Do Collective Actions Clear Common Air? The Effect of International Environmental Protocols on Sulphur Emissions
AbstractWe consider the effects of voluntary international environmental protocols on emissions with regard to the 1985 Helsinki Protocol and the 1994 Oslo Protocol on the reduction of sulphur oxides. Our analysis utilizes panel data from 30 European countries for the period 1960–2002. We divide these countries into “participants” and “non-participants”, i.e., those that did and those that did not ratify the specific protocol. We use a difference-in-difference estimator that focuses on the difference in emissions before and after signing a specific protocol and compares it with this difference for non-participant countries. Difference-in-difference estimation methods rely on annual data and may induce serial correlations in the variables. We use randomly generated placebo protocols to test the estimated effects. In a panel data regression model, where we include country and year dummies, the effect of the Helsinki agreement in reducing sulphur emissions is around three per cent per year, and the effect of the Oslo agreement is around four per cent per year. Correcting the standard errors for serial correlation in both dependent and independent variables is important and overlooked in the previous empirical literature on the evaluation of international agreements.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Bergen, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 10/07.
Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: 13 Jul 2007
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Institutt for økonomi, Universitetet i Bergen, Postboks 7802, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Web page: http://www.uib.no/econ/en
More information through EDIRC
International agreements; programme evaluation; placebo; serial correlation;
Other versions of this item:
- Aakvik, Arild & Tjøtta, Sigve, 2011. "Do collective actions clear common air? The effect of international environmental protocols on sulphur emissions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 343-351, June.
- D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
- H49 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Other
- Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Carraro, Carlo & Siniscalco, Domenico, 1991.
"Strategies for the International Protection of the Environment,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
568, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Carraro, Carlo & Siniscalco, Domenico, 1993. "Strategies for the international protection of the environment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 309-328, October.
- Arce M., Daniel G. & Sandler, Todd, 2001. "Transnational public goods: strategies and institutions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 493-516, September.
- Barrett, Scott, 2001. "International cooperation for sale," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 1835-1850, December.
- James J. Heckman, 1989.
"Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods for Estimating the Impact of Social Programs: The Case of Manpower Training,"
NBER Working Papers
2861, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heckman, J.J. & Hotz, V.J., 1988. "Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods For Estimating The Impact Of Social Programs: The Case Of Manpower Training," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 88-12, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
- Bratberg, Espen & Tjøtta, Sigve & Øines, Torgeir, 2003.
"Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?,"
Working Papers in Economics
06/03, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
- Bratberg, Espen & Tjotta, Sigve & Oines, Torgeir, 2005. "Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 583-597, November.
- Lange, Andreas & Vogt, Carsten, 2003.
"Cooperation in international environmental negotiations due to a preference for equity,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2049-2067, September.
- Lange, Andreas & Vogt, Carsten, 2001. "Cooperation in international environmental negotiations due to a preference for equity," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-14, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Lee, Myoung-jae & Kang, Changhui, 2006. "Identification for difference in differences with cross-section and panel data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 270-276, August.
- Heckman, James J. & Robb, Richard Jr., 1985. "Alternative methods for evaluating the impact of interventions : An overview," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 239-267.
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004.
"How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275, February.
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?," NBER Working Papers 8841, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:dar:vpaper:33634 is not listed on IDEAS
- Michael Hoel, 1992. "International environment conventions: The case of uniform reductions of emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 2(2), pages 141-159, March.
- Murdoch, James C & Sandler, Todd & Sargent, Keith, 1997. "A Tale of Two Collectives: Sulphur versus Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction in Europe," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 281-301, May.
- Joshua Angrist & Alan Krueger, 1998.
"Empirical Strategies in Labor Economics,"
780, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Sandler,Todd, 2004.
"Global Collective Action,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521542548, October.
- Lee, Myoung-jae, 2005. "Micro-Econometrics for Policy, Program and Treatment Effects," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199267699.
- Helland Eric & Tabarrok Alexander, 2004. "Using Placebo Laws to Test "More Guns, Less Crime"," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 1-9, January.
- Murdoch, James C. & Sandler, Todd, 1997. "The voluntary provision of a pure public good: The case of reduced CFC emissions and the Montreal Protocol," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 331-349, February.
- Douglass C. North, 2005.
"Introduction to Understanding the Process of Economic Change
[Understanding the Process of Economic Change]," Introductory Chapters, Princeton University Press.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2013.
"Estimating the Effects of Kyoto on Bilateral Trade Flows Using Matching Econometrics,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 303-330, 03.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel J. Felbermayr, 2011. "Estimating the effects of Kyoto on bilateraltrade flows using matching econometrics," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 119, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2011. "What a Difference Kyoto Made: Evidence from Instrumental Variables Estimation," Ifo Working Paper Series Ifo Working Paper No. 102, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel J. Felbermayr, 2011. "Kyoto and Carbon Leakage: An Empirical Analysis of the Carbon Content of Bilateral Trade," CESifo Working Paper Series 3661, CESifo Group Munich.
- Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2011.
"Kyoto and the Carbon Footprint of Nations,"
Ifo Working Paper Series
Ifo Working Paper No. 103, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kjell Erik Lommerud).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.