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The employment effects of different regimes of welfare state taxation: An empirical analysis of core OECD countries


  • Kemmerling, Achim


Among policy-makers and academics there is a controversial discussion whether the tax mix influences labor market performance in advanced industrialized countries. Many economists argue that the total tax burden rather than the tax-mix matters for aggregate employment, whereas neither the burden nor the mix play major roles in determining unemployment in the long run. This paper aims at combining this literature with an analysis informed by comparative welfare state analysis. It starts with a discussion of standard economic accounts - the incentives literature - and looks for cases where tax-mixes affect labor markets. Then the analysis shifts to a comparative point of view. Contemporaneous welfare states not only differ in terms of social expenditures, but also in the ways they fund these expenditures by various forms of taxation. The paper shows some of the linkages between the tax regime on the one hand, and the regime for social expenditures, and namely social transfers, on the other hand. The tax regime is, however, an imperfect mirror image of social expenditures and has the capacity to shape labor market outcomes. In particular, countries with high payroll and indirect taxation pose more problems for (low-wage) private sector employment than countries relying predominantly on income taxation. Moreover, since all countries have opened up their goods and capital markets, taxation these days should matter more for labor market outcomes than in times when markets were still national in nature. The paper attempts to judge the empirical plausibility of these claims. The empirical estimations generate three tentative results: First, there is some evidence that payroll and indirect taxation is more harmful for labor markets than income taxation. Second, this is particularly true for non-tradables sectors with a low degree of productivity. Third, there is some evidence that the impact of taxation has increased in the last decades. Taken together, the three results add to an explanation why some welfare states in continental Europe have both low employment and high unemployment rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Kemmerling, Achim, 2002. "The employment effects of different regimes of welfare state taxation: An empirical analysis of core OECD countries," MPIfG Discussion Paper 02/8, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:028

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Blundell, Richard & Macurdy, Thomas, 1999. "Labor supply: A review of alternative approaches," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 27, pages 1559-1695 Elsevier.
    2. Laisney, François & Pohlmeier, Winfried & Staat, Matthias, 1991. "Estimation of labour supply functions using panel data: a survey," ZEW Discussion Papers 91-05, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    3. Francesco Daveri, 2002. "Labor Taxes and Unemployment: a Survey of the Aggregate Evidence," CeRP Working Papers 18, Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy).
    4. Thomas Bauer & Regina Riphahn, 2002. "Employment effects of payroll taxes - an empirical test for Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(7), pages 865-876.
    5. Wood, Adrian, 1995. "North-South Trade, Employment and Inequality: Changing Fortunes in a Skill-Driven World," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198290155.
    6. Richard W. Blundell, 1995. "The Impact of Taxation on Labour Force Participation and Labour Supply," OECD Jobs Study Working Papers 8, OECD Publishing.
    7. Bean, Charles R, 1994. "European Unemployment: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(2), pages 573-619, June.
    8. Richard B. Freeman & Ronald Schettkat, 2000. "Low Wage Services: Interpreting the US - German Difference," NBER Working Papers 7611, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Kittel, Bernhard, 2001. "How bargaining mediates wage determination: An exploration of the parameters of wage functions in a pooled time-series cross-section framework," MPIfG Discussion Paper 01/3, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bertram Häussler & Thomas Ecker & Markus Schneider, 2006. "Do Health-Related Labour Costs Weaken the Competitiveness of the Economy?," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 59-68, December.
    2. Fernandez, Juan J., 2010. "Economic crises, high public pension spending and blame-avoidance strategies: Pension policy retrenchments in 14 social-insurance countries, 1981 - 2005," MPIfG Discussion Paper 10/9, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    3. Achim Kemmerling, 2003. "Regional Input on the Social Dimension of Ezoneplus: Belgium, The Netherlands, France, Austria, and Germany," Eastward Enlargement of the Euro-zone Working Papers wp13c, Free University Berlin, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, revised 01 Mar 2003.

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