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Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life and Job Satisfaction


  • Drydakis, Nick


For trans people (i.e. people whose gender is not the same as the sex they were assigned at birth) evidence suggests that transitioning (i.e. the steps a trans person may take to live in the gender with which they identify) positively affects positivity towards life, extraversion, ability to cope with stress, optimism about the future, self-reported health, social relations, self-esteem, body image, enjoyment of tasks, personal performance, job rewards and relations with colleagues. These relationships are found to be positively affected by gender affirmation and support from family members, peers, schools and workplaces, stigma prevention programmes, coping intervention strategies, socioeconomic conditions, anti-discrimination policies, and positive actions. Also important are legislation including the ability to change one’s sex on government identification documents without having to undergo sex reassignment surgery, accessible and affordable transitioning resources, hormone therapy, surgical treatments, high-quality surgical techniques, adequate preparation and mental health support before and during transitioning, and proper follow-up care. Societal marginalization, family rejection, violations of human and political rights in health care, employment, housing and legal systems, gendered spaces, and internalization of stigma can negatively affect trans people’s well-being and integration in societies. The present study highlights that although transitioning itself can bring well-being adjustments, a transphobic environment may result in adverse well-being outcomes. Policy makers should aim to facilitate transitioning and create cultures of inclusion in different settings, such as schools, workplaces, health services and justice.

Suggested Citation

  • Drydakis, Nick, 2019. "Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life and Job Satisfaction," GLO Discussion Paper Series 414, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:414

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. White Hughto, Jaclyn M. & Reisner, Sari L. & Pachankis, John E., 2015. "Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 222-231.
    2. Cheng, Zhiming & Smyth, Russell, 2015. "Sex and happiness," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 26-32.
    3. Vasiliki Bozani & Nick Drydakis & Katerina Sidiropoulou & Benjamin Harvey & Anna Paraskevopoulou, 2019. "Workplace positive actions, trans people’s self-esteem and human resources’ evaluations," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(6), pages 809-831, November.
    4. Nick Drydakis, 2017. "Trans people, well-being, and labor market outcomes," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 386-386, September.
    5. Luthans, Fred & Luthans, Kyle W. & Luthans, Brett C., 2004. "Positive psychological capital: beyond human and social capital," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 45-50.
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    More about this item


    Trans People; Transitioning; Gender Reassignment Surgery; Mental Health; Life Satisfaction; Job Satisfaction;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D91 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J10 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - General
    • J28 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
    • K38 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Human Rights Law; Gender Law

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