IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life and Job Satisfaction


  • Drydakis, Nick


For trans people (i.e. people whose gender is not the same as the sex they were assigned at birth) evidence suggests that transitioning (i.e. the steps a trans person may take to live in the gender with which they identify) positively affects positivity towards life, extraversion, ability to cope with stress, optimism about the future, self-reported health, social relations, self-esteem, body image, enjoyment of tasks, personal performance, job rewards and relations with colleagues. These relationships are found to be positively affected by gender affirmation and support from family members, peers, schools and workplaces, stigma prevention programmes, coping intervention strategies, socioeconomic conditions, anti-discrimination policies, and positive actions. Also important are legislation including the ability to change one’s sex on government identification documents without having to undergo sex reassignment surgery, accessible and affordable transitioning resources, hormone therapy, surgical treatments, high-quality surgical techniques, adequate preparation and mental health support before and during transitioning, and proper follow-up care. Societal marginalization, family rejection, violations of human and political rights in health care, employment, housing and legal systems, gendered spaces, and internalization of stigma can negatively affect trans people’s well-being and integration in societies. The present study highlights that although transitioning itself can bring well-being adjustments, a transphobic environment may result in adverse well-being outcomes. Policy makers should aim to facilitate transitioning and create cultures of inclusion in different settings, such as schools, workplaces, health services and justice.

Suggested Citation

  • Drydakis, Nick, 2019. "Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life and Job Satisfaction," GLO Discussion Paper Series 414, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:414

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Vasiliki Bozani & Nick Drydakis & Katerina Sidiropoulou & Benjamin Harvey & Anna Paraskevopoulou, 2019. "Workplace positive actions, trans people’s self-esteem and human resources’ evaluations," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(6), pages 809-831, November.
    2. Nick Drydakis, 2017. "Trans people, well-being, and labor market outcomes," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 386-386, September.
    3. Luthans, Fred & Luthans, Kyle W. & Luthans, Brett C., 2004. "Positive psychological capital: beyond human and social capital," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 45-50.
    4. Cheng, Zhiming & Smyth, Russell, 2015. "Sex and happiness," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 26-32.
    5. White Hughto, Jaclyn M. & Reisner, Sari L. & Pachankis, John E., 2015. "Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 222-231.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zia Ullah & Esra AlDhaen & Rana Tahir Naveed & Naveed Ahmad & Miklas Scholz & Tasawar Abdul Hamid & Heesup Han, 2021. "Towards Making an Invisible Diversity Visible: A Study of Socially Structured Barriers for Purple Collar Employees in the Workplace," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(16), pages 1-16, August.
    2. Maciej Jagódka & Małgorzata Snarska, 2021. "The State of Human Capital and Innovativeness of Polish Voivodships in 2004–2018," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(22), pages 1-20, November.
    3. Zhiming Cheng & Russell Smyth & Gong Sun, 2013. "Participation and Expenditure of Rural-Urban Migrants in the Illegal Lottery in China," Monash Economics Working Papers 24-13, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    4. Yogesh Upadhyay & Dharmendra Kumar, 2020. "Leader–Member Exchange, Psychological Capital and Employees’ Creativity," Vision, , vol. 24(4), pages 406-418, December.
    5. Andrew Denovan & Ann Macaskill, 2017. "Stress and Subjective Well-Being Among First Year UK Undergraduate Students," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 505-525, April.
    6. Martin Mabunda Baluku & Julius Fred Kikooma & Edward Bantu & Kathleen Otto, 2018. "Psychological capital and entrepreneurial outcomes: the moderating role of social competences of owners of micro-enterprises in East Africa," Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, Springer;UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship, vol. 8(1), pages 1-23, December.
    7. Vasiliki Bozani & Nick Drydakis & Katerina Sidiropoulou & Benjamin Harvey & Anna Paraskevopoulou, 2019. "Workplace positive actions, trans people’s self-esteem and human resources’ evaluations," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(6), pages 809-831, November.
    8. Urmila Rani Srivastava & Vandana Maurya, 2017. "Organizational and Individual Level Antecedents of Psychological Capital and its Associated Outcomes: Development of a Conceptual Framework," Management and Labour Studies, XLRI Jamshedpur, School of Business Management & Human Resources, vol. 42(3), pages 205-236, August.
    9. Peitzmeier, Sarah M. & Wirtz, Andrea L. & Humes, Elizabeth & Hughto, Jaclyn M.W. & Cooney, Erin & Reisner, Sari L., 2021. "The transgender-specific intimate partner violence scale for research and practice: Validation in a sample of transgender women," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 291(C).
    10. Mahdani Ibrahim & Banta Karollah & Vilzati & Fakhrurrazi Amir, 2019. "The Role of Psychological Capital as Mediating the Effect of Job Insecurity on Job Satisfaction: An Investigation at the Banda Aceh Meuraxa Public Hospital," International Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 4(2), pages 297-305, June.
    11. Myoungsuk Kim, 2022. "The Factors Associated with Person-Centered Care Competence among Nursing Students," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(5), pages 1-9, February.
    12. Bhattacharya, Shamayeta & Ghosh, Debarchana, 2020. "Studying physical and mental health status among hijra, kothi and transgender community in Kolkata, India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 265(C).
    13. Zhiming Cheng & Russell Smyth, 2017. "China’S Imbalanced Sex Ratio And Satisfaction With Marriage," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 62(04), pages 765-782, September.
    14. Junhui Hao & Di Wu & Li Liu & Xirui Li & Hui Wu, 2015. "Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 12(6), pages 1-18, June.
    15. Drydakis, Nick, 2021. "Social Rejection, Family Acceptance, Economic Recession and Physical and Mental Health of Sexual Minorities," IZA Discussion Papers 14733, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Irene M. W. Niks & Guido A. Veldhuis & Marianne H. J. van Zwieten & Teun Sluijs & Noortje M. Wiezer & Heleen M. Wortelboer, 2022. "Individual Workplace Well-Being Captured into a Literature- and Stakeholders-Based Causal Loop Diagram," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(15), pages 1-20, July.
    17. Thoresen, Siri & Aakvaag, Helene Flood & Strøm, Ida Frugård & Wentzel-Larsen, Tore & Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott, 2018. "Loneliness as a mediator of the relationship between shame and health problems in young people exposed to childhood violence," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 211(C), pages 183-189.
    18. Gordon, Allegra R. & Austin, S. Bryn & Krieger, Nancy & White Hughto, Jaclyn M. & Reisner, Sari L., 2016. "“I have to constantly prove to myself, to people, that I fit the bill”: Perspectives on weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 141-149.
    19. King, Wesley M. & Hughto, Jaclyn M.W. & Operario, Don, 2020. "Transgender stigma: A critical scoping review of definitions, domains, and measures used in empirical research," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 250(C).
    20. Shikha Sharma & Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, 2016. "Team Resilience: Scale Development and Validation," Vision, , vol. 20(1), pages 37-53, March.

    More about this item


    Trans People; Transitioning; Gender Reassignment Surgery; Mental Health; Life Satisfaction; Job Satisfaction;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D91 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J10 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - General
    • J28 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
    • K38 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Human Rights Law; Gender Law

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:414. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.