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Hiring credits - Einstellungsförderungen: Was der Staat nun für den Arbeitsmarkt tun kann

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  • Berger, Johannes
  • Köppl-Turyna, Monika

Abstract

Die Policy Note untersucht die Auswirkungen der Covid-19-Pandemie 2020/2021 auf den österreichischen Arbeitsmarkt und diskutiert die Frage, ob Einstellungsförderungen, also die Subventionierung von neu geschaffenen Arbeitsplätzen, ein richtiges Instrument sein können, um den Arbeitsmarkt möglichst schnell und effektiv auf den Weg zum Vorkrisen-Niveau zurückzubringen. Österreichs Wirtschaft brach im Jahr 2020 um 7,4 Prozent ein. Im Februar 2021 waren mehr als 500.000 Personen als arbeitslos registriert oder in Schulung. Der Sommer des vergangenen Jahres hat während einer kurzen Phase der Öffnungen in Österreich aber auch gezeigt, dass der Arbeitsmarkt grundsätzlich weiterhin funktioniert. Die Möglichkeit, durch Kurzarbeit Arbeitsplätze zu erhalten, wurde 2020 intensiv genutzt. Für die Zeit nach den restriktiven Kontaktbeschränkungen sollte die Kurzarbeit aber zurückgefahren bzw. von günstigeren und effektiveren Instrumenten abgelöst werden, die die Menschen möglichst schnell in möglichst passende Jobs bringen und auf diese Weise auch den Strukturwandel in Österreich positiv gestalten. In dieser Policy Note werden deshalb vielfältige internationale Erfahrungen mit gezielten Einstellungsförderungen durch die öffentliche Hand beschrieben und diskutiert, um hieraus Hinweise auf eine gute Umsetzung von Subventionen für Neueinstellungen in Österreich abzuleiten. Unsere Analyse zeigt: Einstellungsförderungen wären durchaus ein geeignetes Instrument zur weiteren Gestaltung des Arbeitsmarkts. Die konkrete Ausgestaltung wird dabei über ihren tatsächlichen Erfolg in der Praxis entscheiden - um bestmöglich zu wirken und unerwünschte Nebenwirkungen zu vermeiden, bedarf es eines sehr gezielten Vorgehens und sorgfältiger Abwägung. So legen internationale Erfahrungen nahe, dass Einstellungsförderungen u.a. dann effektiver sind, wenn sie zeitlich befristet sind und die Zielgruppe der Maßnahme nicht zu sehr eingeschränkt, sondern tendenziell breiter gefasst ist.

Suggested Citation

  • Berger, Johannes & Köppl-Turyna, Monika, 2021. "Hiring credits - Einstellungsförderungen: Was der Staat nun für den Arbeitsmarkt tun kann," Policy Notes 45, EcoAustria – Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ecoapn:45
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    References listed on IDEAS

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