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Commuting in small towns in rural areas: the case of St Andrews

Author

Listed:
  • Arne R. Hole

    (University of St Andrews)

  • Felix R. FitzRoy

    (University of St Andrews)

Abstract

Since many rural commuters depend on the private car due to lack of convenient public transport, car reduction policies designed for large cities with ample public transport may be unsuitable for smaller towns. In particular, pricing policies designed to encourage public transport use may be less effective, as commuters with no convenient substitute to driving will be unable to switch. This paper develops multinomial and mixed logit models of commuters’ mode choice using data from a survey of commuters in the University of St Andrews. We find that the direct elasticities of the car mode are comparable to estimates reported in studies of commuting in larger urban areas, while the demand for public transport is considerably more elastic. The value of in-vehicle time is found to be about half of the UK average, reflecting that the roads in the St Andrews area are relatively uncongested.

Suggested Citation

  • Arne R. Hole & Felix R. FitzRoy, 2003. "Commuting in small towns in rural areas: the case of St Andrews," Urban/Regional 0312001, EconWPA, revised 12 Apr 2004.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpur:0312001
    Note: Type of Document - ; prepared on WinXP; to print on LaserJet IIIp; pages: 24
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    File URL: http://econwpa.repec.org/eps/urb/papers/0312/0312001.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Borsch-Supan, Axel, 1990. "On the compatibility of nested logit models with utility maximization," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 373-388, March.
    4. Ortúzar, Juan de Dios & Iacobelli, Andrés & Valeze, Claudio, 2000. "Estimating demand for a cycle-way network," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 353-373, June.
    5. Calfee, John & Winston, Clifford, 1998. "The value of automobile travel time: implications for congestion policy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 83-102, July.
    6. Noland, Robert B & Kunreuther, Howard, 1995. "Short-run and long-run policies for increasing bicycle transportation for daily commuter trips," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 67-79, January.
    7. Kenneth Train, 1980. "A Structured Logit Model of Auto Ownership and Mode Choice," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(2), pages 357-370.
    8. David Hensher, 2001. "The valuation of commuter travel time savings for car drivers: evaluating alternative model specifications," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 101-118, May.
    9. Daniel McFadden, 1977. "Quantitative Methods for Analyzing Travel Behaviour of Individuals: Some Recent Developments," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 474, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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    Cited by:

    1. Risa Hole, Arne, 2004. "Forecasting the demand for an employee Park and Ride service using commuters' stated choices," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 355-362, October.
    2. Tovar, Miguel A., 2011. "An integral evaluation of dieselisation policies for households' cars," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5228-5242, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Mode choice; Rural commuting; Discrete choice models;

    JEL classification:

    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise

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