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Commuting in small towns in rural areas: the case of St Andrews

  • Arne R. Hole

    (University of St Andrews)

  • Felix R. FitzRoy

    (University of St Andrews)

Since many rural commuters depend on the private car due to lack of convenient public transport, car reduction policies designed for large cities with ample public transport may be unsuitable for smaller towns. In particular, pricing policies designed to encourage public transport use may be less effective, as commuters with no convenient substitute to driving will be unable to switch. This paper develops multinomial and mixed logit models of commuters’ mode choice using data from a survey of commuters in the University of St Andrews. We find that the direct elasticities of the car mode are comparable to estimates reported in studies of commuting in larger urban areas, while the demand for public transport is considerably more elastic. The value of in-vehicle time is found to be about half of the UK average, reflecting that the roads in the St Andrews area are relatively uncongested.

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File URL: http://128.118.178.162/eps/urb/papers/0312/0312001.pdf
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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Urban/Regional with number 0312001.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: 04 Dec 2003
Date of revision: 12 Apr 2004
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpur:0312001
Note: Type of Document - ; prepared on WinXP; to print on LaserJet IIIp; pages: 24
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://128.118.178.162

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  1. Herriges, Joseph A. & Kling, Catherine L., 1996. "Testing the consistency of nested logit models with utility maximization," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 33-39, January.
  2. Calfee, John & Winston, Clifford, 1998. "The value of automobile travel time: implications for congestion policy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 83-102, July.
  3. David Hensher, 2001. "The valuation of commuter travel time savings for car drivers: evaluating alternative model specifications," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 101-118, May.
  4. Truong, Truong P & Hensher, David A, 1985. "Measurement of Travel Time Values and Opportunity Cost from a Discrete-Choice Model," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(378), pages 438-51, June.
  5. Ortúzar, Juan de Dios & Iacobelli, Andrés & Valeze, Claudio, 2000. "Estimating demand for a cycle-way network," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 353-373, June.
  6. Borsch-Supan, Axel, 1990. "On the compatibility of nested logit models with utility maximization," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 373-388, March.
  7. Train, Kenneth, 1980. "A Structured Logit Model of Auto Ownership and Mode Choice," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 357-70, January.
  8. Noland, Robert B & Kunreuther, Howard, 1995. "Short-run and long-run policies for increasing bicycle transportation for daily commuter trips," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 67-79, January.
  9. Daniel McFadden, 1977. "Quantitative Methods for Analyzing Travel Behaviour of Individuals: Some Recent Developments," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 474, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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