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Bank Stability and Market Discipline: Debt-for-Equity Swap versus Subordinated Notes

Author

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  • Alon Raviv

    (The Hebrew University Business School)

Abstract

Several studies have recommended reliance on subordinated debt as a tool for monitoring banks by investors and for enhancing depositors’ protection. However, subordinated debenture increases the level of leverage and thus the probability of costly failure. We propose a novel financial instrument, ‘Debt-for-Equity Swap’ contract (DES), that pays to its holder a fixed income unless the value of the bank’s assets falls below a predetermined threshold. In such an event, the debt obligation is automatically converted to the bank’s common equities. By using a contingent claims valuation approach we present closed-form solutions for the valuation of liabilities, the cost of deposit insurance and the value of bankruptcy costs of a bank that includes DES or alternatively subordinated debt in its capital structure. We compare and evaluate quantitatively the effects of DES contract versus subordinated debt on bank stability, depositor protection, incentives for risk taking, the ability to provide market discipline and the value of bankruptcy costs. The implications of the paper highlight the fact that the DES contract has salient advantages over subordinated debt as an efficient tool for enhancing market stability and bank efficiency, since it reduces the value of bankruptcy costs. The advantage of the DES over subordinated debt as a provider of depositors’ protection depends on the level of mandatory intervention, assets value and volatility as well as on the ratio of bankruptcy costs. The model illustrates the pros and cons of each of the two capital instruments as a tool for enhancing market discipline. While the value of subordinated debt increases with the value of assets, its disadvantage as a monitoring tool derives from its low sensitivity to changes in assets volatility when the level of regulatory intervention is relatively high in terms of capital adequacy and the rate of bankruptcy costs is relatively low. The DES contract is beneficial as a tool for monitoring due to its negative sensitivity to increase in assets risk. However, when the conversion ratio is relatively high its price might increase as the leverage ratio increases.

Suggested Citation

  • Alon Raviv, 2004. "Bank Stability and Market Discipline: Debt-for-Equity Swap versus Subordinated Notes," Finance 0408003, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:0408003
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 59
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Viral Acharya & Jing-zhi Huang & Marti Subrahmanyam & Rangarajan Sundaram, 2006. "When does Strategic Debt-service Matter?," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 29(2), pages 363-378, October.
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    5. DeYoung, Robert, et al, 2001. "The Information Content of Bank Exam Ratings and Subordinated Debt Prices," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(4), pages 900-925, November.
    6. Avery, Robert B & Belton, Terrence M & Goldberg, Michael A, 1988. "Market Discipline in Regulating Bank Risk: New Evidence from the Capital Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(4), pages 597-610, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:oup:rfinst:v:30:y:2017:i:1:p:2-47. is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Edward Simpson Prescott, 2012. "Contingent capital: the trigger problem," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue 1Q, pages 33-50.
    3. von Furstenberg, George M., 2011. "Contingent capital to strengthen the private safety net for financial institutions: Cocos to the rescue?," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2011,01, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    4. Avdjiev, Stefan & Bogdanova, Bilyana & Bolton, Patrick & Jiang, Wei & Kartasheva, Anastasia, 2017. "CoCo Issuance and Bank Fragility," CEPR Discussion Papers 12418, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Paul Glasserman & Behzad Nouri, 2012. "Contingent Capital with a Capital-Ratio Trigger," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 58(10), pages 1816-1833, October.
    6. Masror Khah, Sara Abed & Vermaelen, Theo & Wolff, Christian C, 2015. "The Determinants of CoCo Bond Prices," CEPR Discussion Papers 10996, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Hans Gersbach, 2013. "Preventing Banking Crises--with Private Insurance?," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 59(4), pages 609-627, December.
    8. Pennacchi, George & Vermaelen, Theo & Wolff, Christian C. P., 2014. "Contingent Capital: The Case of COERCs," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(03), pages 541-574, June.
    9. repec:krk:eberjl:v:3:y:2015:i:1:p:135-149 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:fip:fedreq:y:2012:i:1q:p:33-50:n:vol.98no.1 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Markus Buergi, 2013. "Pricing contingent convertibles: a general framework for application in practice," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 27(1), pages 31-63, March.
    12. Viral V. Acharya & Lasse H. Pedersen & Thomas Philippon & Matthew Richardson, 2010. "Measuring systemic risk," Working Paper 1002, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    13. Nan Chen & Paul Glasserman & Behzad Nouri & Markus Pelger, 2013. "CoCos, Bail-In, and Tail Risk," Working Papers 13-01, Office of Financial Research, US Department of the Treasury.
    14. Barucci, Emilio & Del Viva, Luca, 2012. "Countercyclical contingent capital," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1688-1709.
    15. Dwight Jaffee & Alexei Tchistyi & Boris Albul, 2013. "Contingent Convertible Bonds and Capital Structure Decisions," 2013 Meeting Papers 682, Society for Economic Dynamics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bank; financial stability; market discipline; deposit insurance; options pricing; subordinated debt; Debt for Equity Swap.;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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    1. Contingent convertible bond in Wikipedia English ne '')
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