About Debt and the Option to Extend Debt Maturity
Both borrowers and creditors often have an implicit option to extend debt maturity as the debtor approaches financial distress. This implicit "extension option" is associated with the possibility for debtors and creditors to renegotiate the debt contract in the hope that extending debt maturity may allow the debtor to overcome temporary liquidity problems. This paper analyses and evaluates such "extension" option in a time independent setting with constant nominal capital structure and in a time dependent setting with not constant nominal capital structure. The "extension option" is shown to significantly increase the value of equity and has a non-negligible impact on debt credit spreads. The "extension option" can also increase the short-term credit spreads of outstanding debt and, in this respect, it ameliorates the shortcoming typical of structural models of credit risk, i.e. the under-prediction of short term credit spreads. The value of the extension option is very sensitive to different possible exercise policies. Four such policies are illustrated, encompassing cases in which the debtor extorts concessions (to extend debt maturity) from creditors and cases in which creditors make self interested concessions (to extend debt maturity). In general, when default is triggered by the "worthless equity" condition, the value of the extension option is much higher than when default is triggered by a liquidity shortage. The option to renegotiate debt maturity is of interest because extending debt maturity can decrease debt value even without cutting promised coupon payment, i.e. without giving up part of the tax shield associated with coupon payments.
|Date of creation:|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (0)1904 323776
Fax: (0)1904 323759
Web page: http://www.york.ac.uk/economics/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anderson, Ronald W & Sundaresan, Suresh, 1996. "Design and Valuation of Debt Contracts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(1), pages 37-68.
- Ericsson, Jan & Reneby, Joel, 1995.
"A Framework for Valuing Corporate Securities,"
SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
89, Stockholm School of Economics, revised Oct 1998.
- Leland, Hayne E, 1994.
" Corporate Debt Value, Bond Covenants, and Optimal Capital Structure,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1213-52, September.
- Hayne E. Leland., 1994. "Corporate Debt Value, Bond Covenants, and Optimal Capital Structure," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-233, University of California at Berkeley.
- In Joon Kim & Krishna Ramaswamy & Suresh Sundaresan, 1993. "Does Default Risk in Coupons Affect the Valuation of Corporate Bonds?: A Contingent Claims Model," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(3), Fall.
- Robert C. Merton, 1973. "Theory of Rational Option Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 4(1), pages 141-183, Spring.
- Pierre Mella-Barral & William R M Perraudin, 1993.
"Strategic Debt Service,"
CEPR Financial Markets Paper
0039, European Science Foundation Network in Financial Markets, c/o C.E.P.R, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ..
- Franks, Julian R & Torous, Walter N, 1989. " An Empirical Investigation of U.S. Firms in Reorganization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 747-69, July.
- Merton, Robert C., 1973.
"On the pricing of corporate debt: the risk structure of interest rates,"
684-73., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-70, May.
- Longstaff, Francis A, 1990. " Pricing Options with Extendible Maturities: Analysis and Applications," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 935-57, July.
- Hayne E. Leland, 1998.
"Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1213-1243, 08.
- Hayne E. Leland., 1998. "Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-278, University of California at Berkeley.
- Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
- Hayne E. Leland and Klaus Bjerre Toft., 1995.
"Optimal Capital Structure, Endogenous Bankruptcy, and the Term Structure of Credit Spreads,"
Research Program in Finance Working Papers
RPF-259, University of California at Berkeley.
- Leland, Hayne E & Toft, Klaus Bjerre, 1996. " Optimal Capital Structure, Endogenous Bankruptcy, and the Term Structure of Credit Spreads," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(3), pages 987-1019, July.
- Black, Fischer & Cox, John C, 1976. "Valuing Corporate Securities: Some Effects of Bond Indenture Provisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 351-67, May.
- Ananthanarayanan, A L & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1980. " Retractable and Extendible Bonds: The Canadian Experience," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(1), pages 31-47, March.
- Anderson, Ronald W. & Sundaresan, Suresh & Tychon, Pierre, 1996. "Strategic analysis of contingent claims," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 871-881, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:yor:yorken:03/20. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Paul Hodgson)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.