Liquidity Shocks, Systemic Risk, and Market Collapse: Theory and Application to the Market for Perps
Traditional explanations of market crashes rely on the collapse of an asset price bubble or the exacerbation of an information asymmetry sufficient to cause less-informed participants to withdraw from the market. We show that markets can crash even though asset prices have not deviated from fundamental values and information is shared symmetrically among all market participants. We present a model in which markets crash when investors shift their beliefs about the liquidity of the secondary market. While such shifts in liquidity may be a factor in explaining many market crashes, the collapse of the market for perpetual floating-rate notes (perps) provides an especially clear illustration of the theory because a shift in liquidity beliefs appears to have been the sole determinant of the market crash. Such a shift can be precipitated by a systemic liquidity shock that is transitory or permanent. The latter proved to be the case with perps because perceptions of the liquidity of the secondary market were permanently altered. In addition to providing new insights into why markets crash, our findings are particularly relevant for unseasoned financial products that are often priced and marketed on the assumption that liquid secondary markets will develop. The perp episode also highlights the importance of broad placement of securities. Since market liquidity arises endogenously from the diversity of liquidity needs across the investor base, the broader the investor base, the lower the probability of a systemic liquidity shock. We also show how simple modifications in security design can mitigate the impact of such a shock should it occur.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2001|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 3301 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall, 3620 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.6367|
Web page: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2000. "Commonality in liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 3-28, April.
- Romer, David, 1993.
"Rational Asset-Price Movements without News,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1112-30, December.
- Bhattacharya, Utpal & Spiegel, Matthew, 1991.
"Insiders, Outsiders, and Market Breakdowns,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(2), pages 255-82.
- Brennan, Michael J. & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 1996. "Market microstructure and asset pricing: On the compensation for illiquidity in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 441-464, July.
- Milgrom, Paul & Stokey, Nancy, 1982.
"Information, trade and common knowledge,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 17-27, February.
- Green, Richard C & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1997. "The Valuation of Nonsystematic Risks and the Pricing of Swedish Lottery Bonds," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(2), pages 447-80.
- Michaely, Roni & Vila, Jean-Luc & Wang, Jiang, 1996. "A Model of Trading Volume with Tax-Induced Heterogeneous Valuation and Transaction Costs," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 340-371, October.
- Bikhchandani, Sushil & Hirshleifer, David & Welch, Ivo, 1992.
"A Theory of Fads, Fashion, Custom, and Cultural Change in Informational Cascades,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 992-1026, October.
- Sushil Bikhchandani & David Hirshleifer & Ivo Welch, 2010. "A theory of Fads, Fashion, Custom and cultural change as informational Cascades," Levine's Working Paper Archive 1193, David K. Levine.
- Allen, Franklin & Gale, Douglas, 2000. "Bubbles and Crises," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(460), pages 236-55, January.
- Guttentag, Jack & Herring, Richard, 1984. " Credit Rationing and Financial Disorder," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(5), pages 1359-82, December.
- Karpoff, Jonathan M, 1986. " A Theory of Trading Volume," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(5), pages 1069-87, December.
- Diamond, Douglas W & Dybvig, Philip H, 1983.
"Bank Runs, Deposit Insurance, and Liquidity,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(3), pages 401-19, June.
- Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1990.
"Herd Behavior and Investment,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 465-79, June.
- Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1986. "Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 223-249, December.
- Glauber, Robert R, 1997. " Systemic Problems in the Next Market Crash," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1184-88, July.
- Robert Litan & William Isaac & William Taylor, 1994. "Financial Regulation," NBER Chapters, in: American Economic Policy in the 1980s, pages 519-572 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Glosten, Lawrence R. & Milgrom, Paul R., 1985.
"Bid, ask and transaction prices in a specialist market with heterogeneously informed traders,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 71-100, March.
- Lawrence R. Glosten & Paul R. Milgrom, 1983. "Bid, Ask and Transaction Prices in a Specialist Market with Heterogeneously Informed Traders," Discussion Papers 570, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
- Michaely, Roni & Vila, Jean-Luc, 1996. "Trading Volume with Private Valuation: Evidence from the Ex-dividend Day," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 9(2), pages 471-509.
- Abhijit V. Banerjee, 1992. "A Simple Model of Herd Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(3), pages 797-817.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:01-34. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.